We have previously reported that the LH-induced decrease in the concentration of ovarian cyclic GMP (cGMP) in the rabbit was accompanied by a drop in ovarian guanylate cyclase activity. The present experiments were carried out to see if the increase in cGMP concentration that occurs in immature rat ovaries after stimulation with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) is also accompanied by changes in guanylate cyclase activity. Total ovarian cGMP, along with ovarian weight, was found to be increased at 16 h after PMSG treatment. Ovarian concentrations of cGMP, however, increased only after that period (at 20, 24 and 48 h) and the increase was progressive. Guanylate cyclase activity was found in both the cytosol and 100 000 g particulate fractions of the immature rat ovaries. Forty-three hours after PMSG treatment, activity in the particulate fraction was found to be significantly increased. This increase in guanylate cyclase activity was also found at 20 h but not at 16 h. Thus, the increase in ovarian cGMP concentration in immature rats after PMSG treatment was accompanied by increased guanylate cyclase activity.