Numbers of granulosa cells obtained from follicles of immature rats increased from 1·6 × 105 cells/ovary on day 8 to 7·1 × 106 cells/ovary on day 40 of age, the day of vaginal opening and first pro-oestrus. Very high levels of cytosol oestrogen receptor were found on day 8 (175 000 sites/cell) but by day 19 20 000 sites/cell were found. Nuclear receptor concentrations were highest on day 12(5400 ± 1470 (s.d.) sites/cell) and again on day 21 (5400 ± 2300 sites/cell). After day 21 both cytosol and nuclear oestrogen receptor concentrations fell and remained low until nuclear concentrations rose at day 40. Two consecutive daily injections of FSH/LH (5 i.u.) increased cell number over control in animals killed on day 22, gave no significant alteration in animals killed on day 26 or 28 but decreased numbers in animals aged 32 and 35 days. Only on day 22 was the increase in cell number associated with an increase in nuclear oestrogen receptor concentrations. Indeed on days 32 and 35 increased nuclear receptor concentrations were associated with a decreased cell number.