The ultrastructure of the luminal surface epithelium was compared in endometrial samples taken from 23 normally cycling women and from 22 patients submitted to ovarian stimulation with clomiphene citrate (100 mg/day for 5 days), human menopausal gonadotrophin (hMG) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). On day 2 after ovulation, only four out of nine specimens taken from the women in the hormone-treated group were identical to those of normally cycling women. On day 6 after ovulation, only two out of the 13 biopsy specimens from the treated group were the same as those from normally cycling women at that stage. Apical protrusions (pinopodes), typical for this period of the cycle, were missing in 11 of the 13 endometrial samples from the treated group.
These observations suggest that the hormonal treatment applied to induce ovulation (clomiphene citrate, hMG and hCG) can modify the normal development of the prenidatory endometrium, and may thus have a negative effect on the rate of egg implantation.