The effect of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) on production of oxytocin and progesterone by cultured bovine granulosa and luteal cells was studied. Secretion of oxytocin was stimulated, in a dose-dependent manner, by IGF-I at 48 and 120 h of culture to levels much higher than those after stimulation with LH, FSH, EGF, FGF or NGF. A similar effect of IGF-I was observed for progesterone but, in contrast to oxytocin, secretion of progesterone was not increased by EGF, NGF or FGF. During primary culture, for 4 h, of dispersed bovine luteal cells obtained from corpora lutea between days 4 and 10 of the oestrous cycle, all the growth factors tested failed to stimulate secretion of oxytocin or progesterone. The data suggest the relevance of growth factors (especially IGF-I) for ovarian physiology and their possible importance for differentiation of follicles and luteinization.