A radioimmunoassay has been developed for quantitation of ovine trophoblast protein-1 (oTP-1), a sheep conceptus secretory protein which allows for maintenance of the corpus luteum during early pregnancy. The assay was validated for dialysed and undialysed culture medium and pregnant uterine flushings ranging from no dilution (neat) to dilutions of 1:2500 for dialysed media, 1:100-1:1000 for undialysed media and 1:50-1:1000 for pregnant uterine flushings. The assay accurately measured oTP-1 added to undiluted and diluted dialysed and undialysed culture media and pregnant uterine flushings. No cross-reaction was detectable for bovine α or γ interferon, bovine calmodulin, feline conceptus secretory proteins, equine conceptus secretory proteins, porcine conceptus secretory proteins, bovine conceptus secretory proteins and proteins in a uterine flushing collected from a non-pregnant ewe. Immunoreactivity in the assay matched that for oTP-1 throughout oTP-1 purification. This assay is the first validated assay which may be used to quantitate production of oTP-1 in culture or content of oTP-1 in uterine flushings.