Insulin-like growth factor 1 triggers salt secretion machinery in fish under acute salinity stress

in Journal of Endocrinology

Correspondence should be addressed to P-P Hwang: pphwang@gate.sinica.edu.tw
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Timely adjustment of osmoregulation upon acute salinity stress is essential for the survival of euryhaline fish. This rapid response is thought to be tightly controlled by hormones; however, there are still questions unanswered. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that the endocrine hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1), a slow-acting hormone, is involved in the activation of salt secretion mechanisms in euryhaline medaka (Oryzias melastigma) during acclimation to acute salinity stress. In response to a 30-ppt seawater (SW) challenge, Na+/Cl secretion was enhanced within 0.5 h, with concomitant organization of ionocyte multicellular complexes and without changes in expression of major transporters. Igf1 receptor inhibitors significantly impair the Na+/Cl secretion and ionocyte multicellular complex responses without affecting transporter expression. Thus, Igf1 may activate salt secretion as part of the teleost response to acute salinity stress by exerting effects on transporter function and enhancing the formation of ionocyte multicellular complexes. These findings provide new insights into hormonal control of body fluid ionic/osmotic homeostasis during vertebrate evolution.

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Table 1. Sequences of primers used for qRT-PCR.
    • Supplementary Figure 1. Effects of IGF1R inhibitor on the expression of Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) in skin ionocytes in 6-dpf medaka embryos after acute FW to SW transfer. The expression of NKCC (A and D) and Na+-K+-ATPase (NKA) (B and E) were analyzed in 6-dpf medaka embryos by T4 and NKA antibody immunostaining, respectively, after transferred from FW to SW for 0.5 h containing DMSO (A-C) or 2 μM picropodophyllin (PPP) (D-F). Cell nuclei were labeled by DAPI, and the images were merged with NKCC and NKA signals (C and F).
    • Supplementary Figure 2. Changes in Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) expression in skin ionocytes in 6-dpf medaka embryos after transfer from FW to SW. Whole embryonic view of the expression of NKCC (A, D, and, G) and Na+-K+-ATPase (NKA) (B, E, and H) in 6-d FW acclimated embryos (A-C), acute FW-SW transfer (D-F), and 6-d SW acclimated embryos (G-I) were analyzed by immunostaining of T4 and NKA antibody. The signals of NKCC in NKAlabeled ionocytes were merely detected in FW acclimated and acute FW-SW transferred embryos, but strongly expressed in SW acclimated embryos. The merge images of NKCC and NKA signals were showed (C, F, and I). The acquisition setting for images is the same for different treatment embryos.
    • Supplementary Figure 3. Changes in the expression of related genes in medaka embryos and adult gills after acclimation to SW. Embryos and adult medaka were acclimated to SW for 6-d and 7-d, respectively. The gene expression was measured by qPCR for igf, igf1ra, igf1rb, nkcc1a, cftr, and NKA alpha subunit isoforms (atp1a1b, atp1a2, atp1a3, and atp1a3b) in 6-dpf embryos (A) and igf, igf1ra, igf1rb, nkcc1a, and cftr in adult gills (B). Values are mean &#x00B1; SD, and sample size is shown in the parentheses. **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, ****p < 0.0001 (twotailed unpaired Student&#x2019;s t-test).
    • Supplementary Figure 4. Changes of igfr1b expression in skin ionocytes in 6-dpf medaka embryos after acute FW to SW. In situ hybridization of igfr1b (A-C) and immunostaining of Na+-K+-ATPase (NKA) (D-F) were performed in 6-d FW acclimated embryos (A, D), acute FWSW transfer (B, E), and 6-d SW acclimated embryos (C and F). Scale bar is 100 &#x03BC;m in (C).

 

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