Previous studies have focused on the role of norepinephrine on arrhythmias, generalized anxiety disorder, and cancer. This study aimed to investigate the effect of norepinephrine on endometrial decidualization. Artificial decidualization and norepinephrine-treated mice were established in vivo. In vitro, human endometrial stromal cells were treated with MPA and cAMP to induce decidualization. Decidual markers and important signaling molecules during decidualization were detected using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. RNA sequencing was performed to determine related signaling pathways. Exposure of excess norepinephrine significantly restricted the induced expression of decidualized markers Dtprp, BMP2, WNT4, and Hand2 in mice. In vitro, 10 µM norepinephrine markedly downregulated the expressions of prolactin, IGFBP1, and PLZF, which are the specifical markers of decidual stromal cells during decidualization. The gene set enrichment analysis showed that a significant enrichment in neuroactive ligand–receptor interactions of norepinephrine treatment group. The α1b-adrenergic receptor expression was upregulated by norepinephrine. Interestingly, norepinephrine did not inhibit the expression of IGFBP1 in endometrial stromal cells after silencing α1b-adrenergic receptor, while significantly suppressed the induced decidualization with overexpression of α1b-adrenergic receptor. When α1b-adrenergic receptor was activated, endometrial p-PKC was significantly increased under post-treatment with norepinephrine in vivo and in vitro. In addition, norepinephrine treatment inhibited embryo and fetal development using a normal pregnancy model. Therefore, norepinephrine exposure inhibited endometrial decidualization through the activation of the PKC signaling pathway by upregulating α1b-adrenergic receptor. Our study could explain some female reproductive problems due to stress and provide some novel strategies for this disorder.