Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) administration attenuates streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rodent models with unclear underlying mechanisms. We found that GABA and Sitagliptin possess additive effect on pancreatic β-cells, which prompted us to ask the existence of common or unique targets of GLP-1 and GABA in pancreatic β-cells. Effect of GABA on expression of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TxNIP) was assessed in the INS-1 832/13 (INS-1) cell line, WT and GLP-1R–/– mouse islets. GABA was also orally administrated in STZ-challenged WT or GLP-1R–/– mice, followed by immunohistochemistry assessment of pancreatic islets. Effect of GABA on Wnt pathway effector β-catenin (β-cat) was examined in INS-1 cells, WT and GLP-1R–/– islets. We found that GABA shares a common feature with GLP-1 on inhibiting TxNIP, while this function was attenuated in GLP-1R–/– islets. In WT mice with STZ challenge, GABA alleviated several ‘diabetic syndromes’, associated with increased β-cell mass. These features were virtually absent in GLP-1R–/– mice. Knockdown TxNIP in INS-1 cells increased GLP-1R, Pdx1, Nkx6.1 and Mafa levels, associated with increased responses to GABA or GLP-1 on stimulating insulin secretion. Cleaved caspase-3 level can be induced by high-glucose, dexamethasone, or STZ in INS-1 cell, while GABA treatment blocked the induction. Finally, GABA treatment increased cellular cAMP level and β-cat S675 phosphorylation in WT but not GLP-1R–/– islets. We, hence, identified TxNIP as a common target of GABA and GLP-1 and suggest that, upon STZ or other stress challenge, the GLP-1R-cAMP-β-cat signaling cascade also mediates beneficial effects of GABA in pancreatic β-cell, involving TxNIP reduction.
Weijuan Shao, Wenjuan Liu, Ping Liang, Zhuolun Song, Odisho Israel, Gerald J Prud’homme, Qinghua Wang, and Tianru Jin
Yuehui Zhang, Min Hu, Wenyan Jia, Guoqi Liu, Jiao Zhang, Bing Wang, Juan Li, Peng Cui, Xin Li, Susanne Lager, Amanda Nancy Sferruzzi-Perri, Yanhua Han, Songjiang Liu, Xiaoke Wu, Mats Brännström, Linus R Shao, and Håkan Billig
Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance and a high risk of miscarriage during pregnancy. Similarly, in rats, maternal exposure to 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and insulin from gestational day 7.5 to 13.5 leads to hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance and subsequently increased fetal loss. A variety of hormonal and metabolic stimuli are able to trigger different types of regulated cell death under physiological and pathological conditions. These include ferroptosis, apoptosis and necroptosis. We hypothesized that, in rats, maternal hyperandrogenism and insulin-resistance-induced fetal loss is mediated, at least in part, by changes in the ferroptosis, apoptosis and necroptosis pathways in the gravid uterus and placenta. Compared with controls, we found that co-exposure to DHT and insulin led to decreased levels of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and glutathione, increased glutathione + glutathione disulfide and malondialdehyde, aberrant expression of ferroptosis-associated genes (Acsl4, Tfrc, Slc7a11, and Gclc), increased iron deposition and activated ERK/p38/JNK phosphorylation in the gravid uterus. In addition, we observed shrunken mitochondria with electron-dense cristae, which are key features of ferroptosis-related mitochondrial morphology, as well as increased expression of Dpp4, a mitochondria-encoded gene responsible for ferroptosis induction in the uteri of rats co-exposed to DHT and insulin. However, in the placenta, DHT and insulin exposure only partially altered the expression of ferroptosis-related markers (e.g. region-dependent GPX4, glutathione + glutathione disulfide, malondialdehyde, Gls2 and Slc7a11 mRNAs, and phosphorylated p38 levels). Moreover, we found decreased expression of Dpp4 mRNA and increased expression of Cisd1 mRNA in placentas of rats co-exposed to DHT and insulin. Further, DHT + insulin-exposed pregnant rats exhibited decreased apoptosis in the uterus and increased necroptosis in the placenta. Our findings suggest that maternal hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance causes the activation of ferroptosis in the gravid uterus and placenta, although this is mediated via different mechanisms operating at the molecular and cellular levels. Our data also suggest that apoptosis and necroptosis may play a role in coordinating or compensating for hyperandrogenism and insulin-resistance-induced ferroptosis when the gravid uterus and placenta are dysfunctional.
Jia-Jiun Yan, Yi-Chun Lee, Yi-Ling Tsou, Yung-Che Tseng, and Pung-Pung Hwang
Timely adjustment of osmoregulation upon acute salinity stress is essential for the survival of euryhaline fish. This rapid response is thought to be tightly controlled by hormones; however, there are still questions unanswered. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that the endocrine hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1), a slow-acting hormone, is involved in the activation of salt secretion mechanisms in euryhaline medaka (Oryzias melastigma) during acclimation to acute salinity stress. In response to a 30-ppt seawater (SW) challenge, Na+/Cl− secretion was enhanced within 0.5 h, with concomitant organization of ionocyte multicellular complexes and without changes in expression of major transporters. Igf1 receptor inhibitors significantly impair the Na+/Cl− secretion and ionocyte multicellular complex responses without affecting transporter expression. Thus, Igf1 may activate salt secretion as part of the teleost response to acute salinity stress by exerting effects on transporter function and enhancing the formation of ionocyte multicellular complexes. These findings provide new insights into hormonal control of body fluid ionic/osmotic homeostasis during vertebrate evolution.
Tatiana Ederich Lehnen, Rafael Marschner, Fernanda Dias, Ana Luiza Maia, and Simone Magagnin Wajner
Imbalances in redox status modulate type 3 deiodinase induction in nonthyroidal illness syndrome. However, the underlying mechanisms that lead to D3 dysfunction under redox imbalance are still poorly understood. Here we evaluated D3 induction, redox homeostasis, and their interrelationships in the liver, muscle, and brain in an animal model of NTIS. Male Wistar rats were subjected to left anterior coronary artery occlusion and randomly separated into two groups and treated or not (placebo) with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. Sham animals were used as controls. Animals were killed 10 or 28 days post-MI induction and tissues were immediately frozen for biochemical analysis. D3 activity, protein oxidation and antioxidant defenses were measured in liver, muscle, and brain. Compared to those of the sham group, the levels of D3 expression and activity were increased in the liver (P = 0.002), muscle (P = 0.03) and brain (P = 0.01) in the placebo group. All tissues from the placebo animals showed increased carbonyl groups (P < 0.001) and diminished sulfhydryl levels (P < 0.001). Glutathione levels were decreased and glutathione disulfide levels were augmented in all examined tissues. The liver and muscle showed augmented levels of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and thioredoxin reductase activity (P = 0.001). NAC prevented all the alterations described previously. D3 dysfunction in all tissues correlates with post-MI-induced protein oxidative damage and altered antioxidant defenses. NAC treatment prevents D3 dysfunction, indicating that reversible redox-related remote D3 activation explains, at least in part, the thyroid hormone derangements of NTIS.
Edra London, Michelle Bloyd, and Constantine A Stratakis
Both direct and indirect evidence demonstrate a central role for the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) signaling pathway in the regulation of energy balance and metabolism across multiple systems. However, the ubiquitous pattern of PKA expression across cell types poses a challenge in pinpointing its tissue-specific regulatory functions and further characterizing its many downstream effects in certain organs or cells. Mouse models of PKA deficiency and over-expression and studies in living cells have helped clarify PKA function in adipose tissue (AT), liver, adrenal, pancreas, and specific brain nuclei, as they pertain to energy balance and metabolic dysregulation. Limited studies in humans suggest differential regulation of PKA in AT of obese compared to lean individuals and an overall dysregulation of PKA signaling in obesity. Despite its complexity, under normal physiologic conditions, the PKA system is tightly regulated by changes in cAMP concentrations upstream via adenylate cyclase and downstream by phosphodiesterase-mediated cAMP degradation to AMP and by changes in PKA holoenzyme stability. Adjustments in the PKA system appear to be important to the development and maintenance of the obese state and its associated metabolic perturbations. In this review we discuss the important role of PKA in obesity and its involvement in resistance to obesity, through studies in humans and in mouse models, with a focus on the regulation of PKA in energy expenditure, intake behavior, and lipid and glucose metabolism.
Giselle Adriana Abruzzese, Maria Florencia Heber, Silvana Rocio Ferreira, Maria José Ferrer, and Alicia Beatriz Motta
Prenatal androgen exposure affects reproductive functions and has been proposed as an underlying cause of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In this study, we aimed to investigate the impact of prenatal androgen exposure on ovarian lipid metabolism and to deepen our understanding of steroidogenesis regulation during adulthood. Pregnant rats were hyperandrogenized with testosterone and female offspring were studied when adult. This treatment leads to two different phenotypes: irregular ovulatory and anovulatory animals. Our results showed that prenatally hyperandrogenized (PH) animals displayed altered lipid and hormonal profile together with alterations in steroidogenesis and ovarian lipid metabolism. Moreover, PH animals showed alterations in the PPARg system, impaired mRNA levels of cholesterol receptors (Ldl-r and Srb-1) and decreased expression of the rate-limiting enzyme of de novo cholesterol production (Hmgcr). Anovulatory PH animals presented an increase of ovarian cholesteryl esters levels and lipid peroxidation index. Together with alterations in cholesterol metabolism, we found an impairment of the steroidogenic pathway in PH animals in a phenotype-specific manner. Regarding fatty acid metabolism, our results showed, in PH animals, an altered expression of Srebp1 and Atgl, which are involved in fatty acid metabolism and triglycerides hydrolysis, respectively. In conclusion, fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism, which are key players in steroidogenesis acting as a source of energy and substrate for steroid production, were affected in animals exposed to androgens during gestation. These results suggest that prenatal androgen exposure leads to long-term effects that affect ovary lipid metabolism and ovarian steroid formation from the very first steps.
Amanda J Genders, Timothy Connor, Shona Morrison, Simon T Bond, Brian G Drew, Peter J Meikle, Kirsten F Howlett, and Sean L McGee
Protein kinase D (PKD) is emerging as an important kinase regulating energy balance and glucose metabolism; however, whether hepatic PKD activity can be targeted to regulate these processes is currently unclear. In this study, hepatic PKD activity was reduced using adeno-associated virus vectors to express a dominant-negative (DN) version of PKD1, which impairs the action of all three PKD isoforms. In chow-fed mice, hepatic DN PKD expression increased whole-body glucose oxidation, but had only mild effects on glucose and insulin tolerance and no effects on glucose homeostasis following fasting and refeeding. However, circulating VLDL cholesterol was reduced under these conditions and was associated with hepatic fatty acid accumulation, but not lipids involved in lipoprotein synthesis. The limited effects on glucose homeostasis in DN PKD mice was despite reduced expression of gluconeogenic genes under both fasted and refed conditions, and enhanced pyruvate tolerance. The requirement for PKD for gluconeogenic capacity was supported by in vitro studies in cultured FAO hepatoma cells expressing DN PKD, which produced less glucose under basal conditions. Although these pathways are increased in obesity, the expression of DN PKD in the liver of mice fed a high-fat diet had no impact on glucose tolerance, insulin action, pyruvate tolerance or plasma VLDL. Together, these data suggest that PKD signalling in the liver regulates metabolic pathways involved in substrate redistribution under conditions of normal nutrient availability, but not under conditions of overnutrition such as in obesity.
Yu Wang, Airong Wu, Liting Xi, Ji Yang, Wenjing Zhou, Yuming Wang, Shuang Liang, Weixin Yu, Yue Wang, and Jinzhou Zhu
Ana Sánchez-Tusie, Carlos Montes de Oca, Julia Rodríguez-Castelán, Evangelina Delgado-Gonzalez, Zamira Ortiz, Lourdes Alvarez, Carlos Zarco, Carmen Aceves, and Brenda Anguiano
Thyroxine (T4) promotes cell proliferation and tumor growth in prostate cancer models, but it is unknown if the increase in the triiodothyronine T3/T4 ratio could attenuate prostate tumor development. We assessed T3 effects on thyroid response, histology, proliferation, and apoptosis in the prostate of wild-type (WT) and TRAMP (transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate) mice. Physiological doses of T3 were administered in the drinking water (2.5, 5 and 15 µg/100 g body weight) for six weeks. None of the doses modified the body weight or serum levels of testosterone, but all of them reduced serum T4 levels by 50%, and the highest dose increased the T3/T4 ratio in TRAMP. In WT, the highest dose of T3 decreased cyclin D1 levels (immunohistochemistry) but did not modify prostate weight or alter the epithelial morphology. In TRAMP, this dose reduced tumor growth by antiproliferative mechanisms independent of apoptosis, but it did not modify the intraluminal or fibromuscular invasion of tumors. In vitro, in the LNCaP prostate cancer cell line, we found that both T3 and T4 increased the number of viable cells (Trypan blue assay), and only T4 response was fully blocked in the presence of an integrin-binding inhibitor peptide (RGD, arginine-glycine-aspartate). In summary, our data show that the prostate was highly sensitive to physiological T3 doses and suggest that in vivo, an increase in the T3/T4 ratio could be associated with the reduced weight of prostate tumors. Longitudinal studies are required to understand the role of thyroid hormones in prostate cancer progression.
Patrycja Kurowska, Ewa Mlyczynska, Monika Dawid, Malgorzata Grzesiak, Joëlle Dupont, and Agnieszka Rak
Vaspin, visceral-adipose-tissue derived serine protease inhibitor, plays important roles in inflammation, obesity, and glucose metabolism. Our recent research has shown the expression and role of vaspin in the function of ovarian follicles. However, whether vaspin regulates steroidogenesis and luteolysis in the corpus luteum (CL) is still unknown. The aim of this study was first to determine the expression of vaspin and its receptor GRP78 in porcine CL at the early, middle, and late stages of the luteal phase. Next, we investigated the hormonal regulation of vaspin levels in luteal cells in response to luteinizing hormone (LH), progesterone (P4), and prostaglandin PGE2 and PGF2α. Finally, we determined vaspin’s direct impact on luteal cells steroidogenesis, luteolysis and kinases phosphorylation. Our results are the first to show higher vaspin/GRP78 expression in middle and late vs early stages; immunohistochemistry showed cytoplasmic vaspin/GRP78 localization in small and large luteal cells. In vitro, we found that LH, P4, PGE2, and PGF2α significantly decreased vaspin levels. Furthermore, vaspin stimulated steroidogenesis by the activation of the GRP78 receptor and protein kinase A (PKA). Also, vaspin increased the ratio of luteotropic PGE2 to luteolytic PGF2α secretion via GRP78 and mitogen-activated kinase (MAP3/1). Moreover, vaspin, in a dose-dependent manner, decreased GRP78 expression, while it, in a time-dependent manner, increased kinases PKA and MAPK3/1 phosphorylation. Taken together, we found that vaspin/GRP78 expression depends on the luteal phase stage and vaspin affects luteal cells endocrinology, indicating that vaspin is a new regulator of luteal cells steroidogenesis and CL formation.