Yu Wang, Airong Wu, Liting Xi, Ji Yang, Wenjing Zhou, Yuming Wang, Shuang Liang, Weixin Yu, Yue Wang, and Jinzhou Zhu
Bushra Taqui, Farzad Asadi, Evangelina Capobianco, Daniel Barry Hardy, Alicia Jawerbaum, and Edith Juliana Arany
Maternal diabetes impairs fetal development and increases the risk of metabolic diseases in the offspring. Previously, we demonstrated that maternal dietary supplementation with 6% of olive oil prevents diabetes-induced embryo and fetal defects, in part, through the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). In this study, we examined the effects of this diet on neonatal and adult pancreatic development in male and female offspring of mothers affected with pre-gestational diabetes. A mild diabetic model was developed by injecting neonatal rats with streptozotocin (90 mg/kg). During pregnancy, these dams were fed a chow diet supplemented or not with 6% olive oil. Offspring pancreata was examined at day 2 and 5 months of age by immunohistochemistry followed by morphometric analysis to determine number of islets, α and β cell clusters and β-cell mass. At 5 months, male offspring of diabetic mothers had reduced β-cell mass that was prevented by maternal supplementation with olive oil. PPARα and PPARγ were localized mainly in α cells and PPARβ/δ in both α and β cells. Although Pparβ/δ and Pparγ RNA expression showed reduction in 5-month-old male offspring of diabetic rats, Pparβ/δ expression returned to control levels after olive-oil supplementation. Interestingly, in vitro exposure to oleic acid (major component of olive oil) and natural PPAR agonists such as LTB4, CPC and 15dPGJ2 also significantly increased expression of all Ppars in αTC1–6 cells. However, only oleic acid and 15dPGJ2 increased insulin and Pdx-1 expression in INS-1E cells suggesting a protective role in β-cells. Olive oil may be considered a dietary supplement to improve islet function in offspring of affected mothers with pre-gestational diabetes.
Chaoyi Zhang, Qianli Zhang, Zhihong Huang, and Quan Jiang
Adropin plays a role in the maintenance of energy homeostasis, insulin resistance prevention, and impaired glucose tolerance. However, the molecular mechanisms by which adropin affects hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism in vitro are not entirely understood. This study intended to examine the roles and underlying mechanisms of adropin in glucose and lipid metabolism in Nile tilapia. In primary cultured tilapia hepatocytes, adropin significantly attenuated oleic acid (OA)-induced glucose output and reduced the activities and mRNA expression of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), which are involved in gluconeogenesis. In contrast, adropin facilitated glucose uptake activity via glucose transporter 1 (Glut1) upregulation in OA-treated hepatocytes. One-week of adropin treatment reduced the hepatic total lipid accumulation in OA-fed tilapia without changes in body weight. Subsequent studies revealed that adropin suppressed OA-induced intracellular triglyceride accumulation and decreased the expression of genes and proteins involved in lipid metabolisms such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase α (ACCα) and CD36, but upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) levels. In parallel studies, however, adropin had no detectable effects on fatty acid-binding protein 4 (Fabp4) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1α (Cpt1α) mRNA expression. Furthermore, adropin treatment dose-dependently increased the phosphorylation level of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Suppression of AMPK by compound C or AMPKα1 siRNA blocked adropin-induced decreases in the mature form of SREBP-1c expression, glucose output, and intracellular triglyceride content in OA-treated hepatocytes. These findings suggest that teleost adropin could suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis and triglyceride accumulation via a mechanism dependent on AMPK signalling.
Qinglei Yin, Liyun Shen, Yicheng Qi, Dalong Song, Lei Ye, Ying Peng, Yanqiu Wang, Zhou Jin, Guang Ning, Weiqing Wang, Dongping Lin, and Shu Wang
SIRT1, a class III histone/protein deacetylase (HDAC), has been associated with autoimmune diseases. There is a paucity of data about the role of SIRT1 in Graves’ disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of SIRT1 in the pathogenesis of GD. Here, we showed that SIRT1 expression and activity were significantly decreased in GD patients compared with healthy controls. The NF-κB pathway was activated in the peripheral blood of GD patients. The reduced SIRT1 levels correlated strongly with clinical parameters. In euthyroid patients, SIRT1 expression was markedly upregulated and NF-κB downstream target gene expression was significantly reduced. SIRT1 inhibited the NF-κB pathway activity by deacetylating P65. These results demonstrate that reduced SIRT1 expression and activity contribute to the activation of the NF-κB pathway and may be involved in the pathogenesis of GD.
Pauline Campos, Jamie J Walker, and Patrice Mollard
In most species, survival relies on the hypothalamic control of endocrine axes that regulate critical functions such as reproduction, growth, and metabolism. For decades, the complexity and inaccessibility of the hypothalamic–pituitary axis has prevented researchers from elucidating the relationship between the activity of endocrine hypothalamic neurons and pituitary hormone secretion. Indeed, the study of central control of endocrine function has been largely dominated by ‘traditional’ techniques that consist of studying in vitro or ex vivo isolated cell types without taking into account the complexity of regulatory mechanisms at the level of the brain, pituitary and periphery. Nowadays, by exploiting modern neuronal transfection and imaging techniques, it is possible to study hypothalamic neuron activity in situ, in real time, and in conscious animals. Deep-brain imaging of calcium activity can be performed through gradient-index lenses that are chronically implanted and offer a ‘window into the brain’ to image multiple neurons at single-cell resolution. With this review, we aim to highlight deep-brain imaging techniques that enable the study of neuroendocrine neurons in awake animals whilst maintaining the integrity of regulatory loops between the brain, pituitary and peripheral glands. Furthermore, to assist researchers in setting up these techniques, we discuss the equipment required and include a practical step-by-step guide to performing these deep-brain imaging studies.
Marianna Minnetti, Valeria Hasenmajer, Riccardo Pofi, Mary Anna Venneri, Krystallenia I Alexandraki, and Andrea M Isidori
The circadian rhythm derives from the integration of many signals that shape the expression of clock-related genes in a 24-h cycle. Biological tasks, including cell proliferation, differentiation, energy storage, and immune regulation, are preferentially confined to specific periods. A gating system, supervised by the central and peripheral clocks, coordinates the endogenous and exogenous signals and prepares for transition to activities confined to periods of light or darkness. The fluctuations of cortisol and its receptor are crucial in modulating these signals. Glucocorticoids and the autonomous nervous system act as a bridge between the suprachiasmatic master clock and almost all peripheral clocks. Additional peripheral synchronizing mechanisms including metabolic fluxes and cytokines stabilize the network. The pacemaker is amplified by peaks and troughs in cortisol and their response to food, activity, and inflammation. However, when the glucocorticoid exposure pattern becomes chronically flattened at high- (as in Cushing’s syndrome) or low (as in adrenal insufficiency) levels, the system fails. While endocrinologists are well aware of cortisol rhythm, too little attention has been given to interventions aimed at restoring physiological cortisol fluctuations in adrenal disorders. However, acting on glucocorticoid levels may not be the only way to restore clock-related activities. First, a counterregulatory mechanism on the glucocorticoid receptor itself controls signal transduction, and second, melatonin and/or metabolically active drugs and nutrients could also be used to modulate the clock. All these aspects are described herein, providing some insights into the emerging role of chronopharmacology, focusing on glucocorticoid excess and deficiency disorders.
Gregory S Y Ong, Timothy J Cole, Gregory H Tesch, James Morgan, Jennifer K Dowling, Ashley Mansell, Peter J Fuller, and Morag J Young
MR activation in macrophages is critical for the development of cardiac inflammation and fibrosis. We previously showed that MR activation modifies macrophage pro-inflammatory signalling, changing the cardiac tissue response to injury via both direct gene transcription and JNK/AP-1 second messenger pathways. In contrast, MR-mediated renal electrolyte homeostasis is critically determined by DNA-binding-dependent processes. Hence, ascertaining the relative contribution of MR actions via DNA binding or alternative pathways on macrophage behaviour and cardiac inflammation may provide therapeutic opportunities which separate the cardioprotective effects of MR antagonists from their undesirable renal potassium-conserving effects. We developed new macrophage cell lines either lacking MR or harbouring a mutant MR incapable of DNA binding. Western blot analysis demonstrated that MR DNA binding is required for lipopolysaccharide (LPS), but not phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), induction of the MAPK/pJNK pathway in macrophages. Quantitative RTPCR for pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic targets revealed subsets of LPS- and PMA-induced genes that were either enhanced or repressed by the MR via actions that do not always require direct MR-DNA binding. Analysis of the MR target gene and profibrotic factor MMP12 identified promoter elements that are regulated by combined MR/MAPK/JNK signalling. Evaluation of cardiac tissue responses to an 8-day DOC/salt challenge in mice selectively lacking MR DNA-binding in macrophages demonstrated levels of inflammatory markers equivalent to WT, indicating non-DNA binding-dependent MR signalling in macrophages is sufficient for DOC/salt-induced tissue inflammation. Our data demonstrate that the MR regulates a macrophage pro-inflammatory phenotype and cardiac tissue inflammation, partially via pathways that do not require DNA binding.
Katherine N Makowski, Michael J Kreisman, Richard B McCosh, Ali A Raad, and Kellie M Breen
Peripheral immune/inflammatory challenges rapidly disrupt reproductive neuroendocrine function. This inhibition is considered to be centrally mediated via suppression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion, yet the neural pathway(s) for this effect remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that interleukin-1β inhibits pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion in female mice via inhibition of arcuate kisspeptin cell activation, a population of neurons considered to be the gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse generator. In the first experiment, we determined that the inhibitory effect of peripheral interleukin-1β on luteinizing hormone secretion was enhanced by estradiol. We next utilized serial sampling and showed that interleukin-1β reduced the frequency of luteinizing hormone pulses in ovariectomized female mice treated with estradiol. The interleukin-1β-induced suppression of pulse frequency was associated with reduced kisspeptin cell activation, as determined by c-Fos coexpression, but not as a result of impaired responsiveness to kisspeptin challenge. Together, these data suggest an inhibitory action of interleukin-1β upstream of kisspeptin receptor activation. We next tested the hypothesis that estradiol enhances the activation of brainstem nuclei responding to interleukin-1β. We determined that the expression of interleukin-1 receptor was elevated within the brainstem following estradiol. Interleukin-1β induced c-Fos in the area postrema, ventrolateral medulla, and nucleus of the solitary tract; however, the response was not increased by estradiol. Collectively, these data support a neural mechanism whereby peripheral immune/inflammatory stress impairs reproductive neuroendocrine function via inhibition of kisspeptin cell activation and reduced pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion. Furthermore, these findings implicate the influence of estradiol on peripherally mediated neural pathways such as those activated by peripheral cytokines.
Kristen E Syring, Karin J Bosma, Slavina B Goleva, Kritika Singh, James K Oeser, Christopher A Lopez, Eric P Skaar, Owen P McGuinness, Lea K Davis, David R Powell, and Richard M O’Brien
SLC30A8 encodes the zinc transporter ZnT8. SLC30A8 haploinsufficiency protects against type 2 diabetes (T2D), suggesting that ZnT8 inhibitors may prevent T2D. We show here that, while adult chow fed Slc30a8 haploinsufficient and knockout (KO) mice have normal glucose tolerance, they are protected against diet-induced obesity (DIO), resulting in improved glucose tolerance. We hypothesize that this protection against DIO may represent one mechanism whereby SLC30A8 haploinsufficiency protects against T2D in humans and that, while SLC30A8 is predominantly expressed in pancreatic islet beta cells, this may involve a role for ZnT8 in extra-pancreatic tissues. Consistent with this latter concept we show in humans, using electronic health record-derived phenotype analyses, that the ‘C’ allele of the non-synonymous rs13266634 SNP, which confers a gain of ZnT8 function, is associated not only with increased T2D risk and blood glucose, but also with increased risk for hemolytic anemia and decreased mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH). In Slc30a8 KO mice, MCH was unchanged but reticulocytes, platelets and lymphocytes were elevated. Both young and adult Slc30a8 KO mice exhibit a delayed rise in insulin after glucose injection, but only the former exhibit increased basal insulin clearance and impaired glucose tolerance. Young Slc30a8 KO mice also exhibit elevated pancreatic G6pc2 gene expression, potentially mediated by decreased islet zinc levels. These data indicate that the absence of ZnT8 results in a transient impairment in some aspects of metabolism during development. These observations in humans and mice suggest the potential for negative effects associated with T2D prevention using ZnT8 inhibitors.
Hans-Peter Holthoff, Kerstin Uhland, Gabor Laszlo Kovacs, Andreas Reimann, Kristin Adler, Clara Wenhart, and Martin Ungerer
Graves’ disease is an autoimmune disorder, which is characterized by stimulatory antibodies targeting the human thyrotropin receptor (TSHR), resulting in hyperthyroidism and multiple organ damage. We systematically investigated monomeric and dimeric fusion proteins of the A subunit of TSHR for efficacy to bind to the monoclonal patient antibody M22, to interact with Graves’ patient serum samples, and to impact on anti-TSHR antibody titers, hyperthyroidism, tachycardia and other in vivo read-outs in a long-term mouse model of Graves’ disease induced by immunization with a recombinant adenovirus encoding TSHR A. Binding assays and functional measurements of TSHR-dependent cAMP formation showed binding of monomeric TSHR-His and dimeric TSHR-Fc to the anti-TSHR antibody M22 at low-effective concentrations (EC50 of 5.7 nmol/L and 8.6 nmol/L) and inhibition of the effects of this antibody at high efficiencies (IC50 values of 16–20 nmol/L). Both proteins also block the effects of polyclonal anti-TSHR antibodies occurring in Graves’ patient sera with somewhat lower average efficiencies (mean IC50 values of 29 nmol/L and 68 nmol/L). However, in vivo characterization of epicutaneous patch administrations of TSHR-Fc at doses of 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg body weight in a murine Graves’ disease model did not result in any improvement of disease parameters. In conclusion, high affinity binding of TSHR-Fc to pathological anti-TSHR antibodies was not matched by efficacy to improve Graves’ disease parameter in a long-term mouse model.