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Yoshinori Kanemaru, Norio Harada, Satoko Shimazu-Kuwahara, Shunsuke Yamane, Eri Ikeguchi, Yuki Murata, Sakura Kiyobayashi, Tomonobu Hatoko and Nobuya Inagaki

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is an incretin secreted from enteroendocine K cells after nutrient ingestion. Fat strongly induces GIP secretion, and GIP hypersecretion is involved in high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Aging also induces GIP hypersecretion, but its effect on body weight gain and insulin sensitivity remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of GIP on age-related body weight gain and insulin resistance using GIP-knockout homozygous (GIP−/ ) and heterozygous (GIP+/ ) mice, which have entirely absent and 50% reduced GIP secretion compared to wild-type (WT) mice, respectively. Under 12% fat-containing normal diet feeding condition, body weight was significantly lower in GIP−/ mice compared to that in WT and GIP+/ mice from 38 weeks of age, while there was no significant difference between WT and GIP+/ mice. Visceral and s.c. fat mass were also significantly lower in GIP−/ mice compared to those in WT and GIP+/ mice. During oral glucose tolerance test, blood glucose levels did not differ among the three groups. Insulin levels were significantly lower in GIP−/ mice than those in WT and GIP+/ mice. During insulin tolerance test, GIP−/ mice showed higher insulin sensitivity than that of WT and GIP+/ mice. Adiponectin mRNA levels were increased and leptin mRNA levels tended to be decreased in adipose tissue of GIP−/ mice. These results demonstrate that GIP is involved in age-related obesity and insulin resistance and that inhibition of GIP secretion alleviates age-related fat mass gain and insulin resistance under carbohydrate-based diet feeding condition.

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Zhe-Zhen Liao, Xiao-Yan Qi, Ya-Di Wang, Jiao-Yang Li, Qian-Qian Gu, Can Hu, Yin Hu, Heng Sun, Li Ran, Jing Yang, Jiang-Hua Liu and Xin-Hua Xiao

Remodeling of energy-storing white fat into energy-consuming beige fat has led to a promising new approach to alleviate adiposity. Several studies have shown adipokines can induce white adipose tissue (WAT) beiging through autocrine or paracrine actions. Betatrophin, a novel adipokine, has been linked to energy expenditure and lipolysis but not clearly clarified. Here, we using high-fat diet-induced obesity to determine how betatrophin modulate beiging and adiposity. We found that betatrophin-knockdown mice displayed less white fat mass and decreased plasma TG and NEFA levels. Consistently, inhibition of betatrophin leads to the phenotype change of adipocytes characterized by increased mitochondria contents, beige adipocytes and mitochondria biogenesis-specific markers both in vivo and in vitro. Of note, blocking AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway is able to abolish enhanced beige-like characteristics in betatrophin-knockdown adipocytes. Collectively, downregulation of betatrophin induces beiging in white adipocytes through activation of AMPK signaling pathway. These processes suggest betatrophin as a latent therapeutic target for obesity.

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Zhengxiang Huang, Lili Huang, Chengjian Wang, Shanli Zhu, Xinzhou Qi, Yang Chen, Yanjun Zhang, Michael A Cowley, Johannes D Veldhuis and Chen Chen

The well-documented hormonal disturbance in a general obese population is characterised by an increase in insulin secretion and a decrease in growth hormone (GH) secretion. Such hormonal disturbance promotes an increase in fat mass, which deteriorates obesity and accelerates the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. While the pathological consequence is alarming, the pharmaceutical approach attempting to correct such hormonal disturbance remains limited. By applying an emerging anti-diabetic drug, the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, dapagliflozin (1 mg/kg/day for 10 weeks), to a hyperphagic obese mouse model, we observed a significant improvement in insulin and GH secretion as early as 4 weeks after the initiation of the treatment. Restoration of pathological disturbance of insulin and GH secretion reduced fat accumulation and preserved lean body mass in the obese animal model. Such phenotypic improvement followed with concurrent improvements in glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, as well as the expression of metabolic genes that were regulated by insulin and GH. In conclusion, 10 weeks of treatment with dapagliflozin effectively reduces hyperinsulinemia and restores pulsatile GH secretion in the hyperphagic obese mice with considerable improvement in lipid and glucose metabolism. Promising outcomes from this study may provide insights into drug intervention to correct hormonal disturbance in obesity to delay the diabetes progression.

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Zeravan A Mohammed, Robert S Robinson, Rachel Harris, Yasmin McLaughlin, Kaitlin E M Turnbull, George E Mann and Kathryn J Woad

Reproductive tract inflammatory disease (RTID) commonly occurs after the traumatic events of parturition and adversely affects follicular function. This study is the first to describe the cellular and steroidogenic characteristics of corpora lutea from cattle with RTID and the effects of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on luteal angiogenesis and function in vitro. Luteal weight (P < 0.05) and progesterone content (P < 0.05) were reduced (1.2-fold) in cows with RTID, accompanied by reduced CYP11A (P < 0.05), HSD3B (P < 0.01) and STAR (P < 0.01) protein expression. Immunohistochemistry revealed that luteal vascularity (VWF) and pericyte (ACTA2) coverage were >3-fold lower in RTID cows (P < 0.05). To link these observations to bacterial infection and determine specificity of action, a physiologically relevant luteal angiogenesis culture system examined the effects of PAMPs on endothelial cell (EC) network formation and progesterone production, in the presence of pro-angiogenic factors. Luteal EC networks were reduced ≤95% (P < 0.05) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 agonist) but not by TLR2 agonists lipoteichoic acid or peptidoglycan. Conversely, progesterone production and steroidogenic protein expression were unaffected by PAMPs (P > 0.05). Moreover, the adverse effect of LPS on luteal EC networks was dose-dependent and effective from 1 ng/mL (P < 0.05), while few EC networks were present above 10 ng/mL LPS (P < 0.001). LPS reduced proliferation (P < 0.05) and increased apoptosis of EC (P < 0.001). The specific TLR4 inhibitor TAK242 reversed the effects of LPS on EC networks. In conclusion, luteal vasculature is adversely sensitive to LPS acting via TLR4, therefore ovarian exposure to LPS from any Gram-negative bacterial infection will profoundly influence subsequent reproductive potential.

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Muraly Puttabyatappa, Robert M. Sargis and Vasantha Padmanabhan

Insulin resistance is a common feature of many metabolic disorders. The dramatic rise in the incidence of insulin resistance over the past decade has enhanced focus on its developmental origins. Since various developmental insults ranging from maternal disease, stress, over/undernutrition, and exposure to environmental chemicals can all program the development of insulin resistance, common mechanisms may be involved. This review discusses the possibility that increases in maternal androgens associated with these various insults are key mediators in programming insulin resistance. Additionally, the intermediaries through which androgens misprogram tissue insulin sensitivity, such as changes in inflammatory, oxidative, and lipotoxic states, epigenetic, gut microbiome and insulin, as well as data gaps to be filled are also discussed.

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Terese M Zidon, Jaume Padilla, Kevin L Fritsche, Rebecca J Welly, Leighton T McCabe, Olivia E Stricklin, Aaron Frank, Youngmin Park, Deborah J Clegg, Dennis B Lubahn, Jill A Kanaley and Victoria J Vieira-Potter

Loss of ovarian hormones leads to increased adiposity and insulin resistance (IR), increasing the risk for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the molecular mechanism behind the adverse systemic and adipose tissue-specific metabolic effects of ovariectomy requires loss of signaling through estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) or estrogen receptor β (ERβ). We examined ovariectomized (OVX) and ovary-intactwild-type (WT), ERα-null (αKO), and ERβ-null (βKO) female mice (age ~49 weeks; n = 7–12/group). All mice were fed a phytoestrogen-free diet (<15 mg/kg) and either remained ovary-intact (INT) or were OVX and followed for 12 weeks. Body composition, energy expenditure, glucose tolerance, and adipose tissue gene and protein expression were analyzed. INT αKO were ~25% fatter with reduced energy expenditure compared to age-matched INT WT controls and βKO mice (all P < 0.001). Following OVX, αKO mice did not increase adiposity or experience a further increase in IR, unlike WT and βKO, suggesting that loss of signaling through ERα mediates OVX-induced metabolic dysfunction. In fact, OVX in αKO mice (i.e., signaling through ERβ in the absence of ERα) resulted in reduced adiposity, adipocyte size, and IR (P < 0.05 for all). βKO mice responded adversely to OVX in terms of increased adiposity and development of IR. Together, these findings challenge the paradigm that ERα mediates metabolic protection over ERβ in all settings. These findings lead us to suggest that, following ovarian hormone loss, ERβ may mediate protective metabolic benefits.

Open access

Shisan Xu, Fangjing Xie, Li Tian, Samane Fallah, Fatemeh Babaei, Sinai H C Manno, Francis A M Manno III, Lina Zhu, Kin Fung Wong, Yimin Liang, Rajkumar Ramalingam, Lei Sun, Xin Wang, Robert Plumb, Lee Gethings, Yun Wah Lam and Shuk Han Cheng

Sexual differences have been observed in the onset and prognosis of human cardiovascular diseases, but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. Here, we found that zebrafish heart regeneration is faster in females, can be accelerated by estrogen and is suppressed by the estrogen-antagonist tamoxifen. Injuries to the zebrafish heart, but not other tissues, increased plasma estrogen levels and the expression of estrogen receptors, especially esr2a. The resulting endocrine disruption induces the expression of the female-specific protein vitellogenin in male zebrafish. Transcriptomic analyses suggested heart injuries triggered pronounced immune and inflammatory responses in females. These responses, previously shown to elicit heart regeneration, could be enhanced by estrogen treatment in males and reduced by tamoxifen in females. Furthermore, a prior exposure to estrogen preconditioned the zebrafish heart for an accelerated regeneration. Altogether, this study reveals that heart regeneration is modulated by an estrogen-inducible inflammatory response to cardiac injury. These findings elucidate a previously unknown layer of control in zebrafish heart regeneration and provide a new model system for the study of sexual differences in human cardiac repair.

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Hui Yu, Zoe Thompson, Sylee Kiran, Graham L Jones, Lakshmi Mundada, Surbhi, Marcelo Rubinstein and Malcolm J Low

Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) are essential for normal energy homeostasis. Maximal ARC Pomc transcription is dependent on neuronal Pomc enhancer 1 (nPE1), located 12 kb upstream from the promoter. Selective deletion of nPE1 in mice decreases ARC Pomc expression by 70%, sufficient to induce mild obesity. Because nPE1 is located exclusively in the genomes of placental mammals, we questioned whether its hypomorphic mutation would also alter placental Pomc expression and the metabolic adaptations associated with pregnancy and lactation. We assessed placental development, pup growth, circulating leptin and expression of Pomc, Agrp and alternatively spliced leptin receptor (LepR) isoforms in the ARC and placenta of Pomc∆1/∆1 and Pomc+/+ dams. Despite indistinguishable body weights, lean mass, food intake, placental histology and Pomc expression and overall pregnancy outcomes between the genotypes, Pomc ∆1/∆1 females had increased pre-pregnancy fat mass that paradoxically decreased to control levels by parturition. However, Pomc∆1/∆1 dams had exaggerated increases in circulating leptin, up to twice of that of the typically elevated levels in Pomc+/+ mice at the end of pregnancy, despite their equivalent fat mass. Pomc∆1/∆1dams also had increased placental expression of soluble leptin receptor (LepRe), although the protein levels of LEPRE in circulation were the same as Pomc+/+ controls. Together, these data suggest that the hypomorphic Pomc∆1/∆1 allele is responsible for the perinatal super hyperleptinemia of Pomc∆1/∆1 dams, possibly due to upregulated leptin secretion from individual adipocytes.

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Julian C Lui

The resting zone houses a group of slowly proliferating 'reserve' chondrocytes and has long been speculated to serve as the stem cell niche of the postnatal growth plate. But are these resting chondrocytes bona fide stem cells? Recent technological advances in lineage tracing and next-generation sequencing has finally allowed researchers to answer this question. Several recent studies have also shed light into the signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms involved in maintenance of resting chondrocytes, thus provided us with important new insights into the role of the resting zone in the paracrine and endocrine regulation of childhood bone growth.

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Wenjing Wu, Jiayao Fu, Yijing Gu, Yu Wei, Pengfei Ma and Junhua Wu

Emerging evidence has indicated that estrogen deficiency contributes to osteoporosis by affecting the level of inflammation. The inflammation microenvironment affects many cellular physiological processes, one of which may be cellular senescence according to previous studies. Senescent cells cannot function normally and secrete inflammatory cytokines and degradative proteins, which are referred to as senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) factors, inducing further senescence and inflammation. Thus, stopping this vicious cycle may be helpful for postmenopausal osteoporosis treatment. Here, we used ovariectomized (OVX) mice as an estrogen-deficient model and confirmed that OVX bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) displayed a senescent phenotype and upregulated SASP factor secretion both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, JAK2/STAT3, an important cytokine secretion-related signalling pathway that is associated with SASP secretion, was activated. Estrogen addition and estrogen receptor blockade confirmed that the JAK2/STAT3 axis participated in OVX BMSC senescence by mediating SASP factors. And JAK inhibition reduced SASP factor expression, alleviated senescence and enhanced osteogenic differentiation. Intraperitoneal injection of a JAK inhibitor, ruxolitinib, prevented bone loss in OVX mice. Collectively, our results revealed that JAK2/STAT3 plays an important role in the inflammation-senescence-SASP feedback loop in OVX BMSCs and that JAK inhibition could be a new method for treating postmenopausal osteoporosis.