The incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV), thereby losing insulinotropic activity. DPP IV inhibition reduces exogenous GLP-1 degradation, but the extent of endogenous incretin protection has not been fully assessed, largely because suitable assays which distinguish between intact and degraded peptides have been unavailable. Using newly developed assays for intact GLP-1 and GIP, the effect of DPP IV inhibition on incretin hormone metabolism was examined. Conscious dogs were given NVP-DPP728, a specific DPP IV inhibitor, at a dose that inhibited over 90% of plasma DPP IV for the first 90 min following treatment. Total and intact incretin concentrations increased (P<0.0001) following a mixed meal, but on control days (vehicle infusion), intact peptide concentrations were lower (P<0.01) than total peptide concentrations (22.6 +/- 1.2% intact GIP; 10.1 +/- 0.4% intact GLP-1). Following inhibitor treatment, the proportion of intact peptide increased (92.5 +/- 4.3% intact GIP, P<0.0001; 99.0 +/- 22.6% intact GLP-1, P<0.02). Active (intact) incretins increased after NVP-DPP728 (from 4797 +/- 364 to 10 649 +/- 106 pM x min for GIP, P<0.03; from 646 +/- 134 to 2822 +/- 528 pM x m in for GLP-1, P<0.05). In contrast, total incretins fell (from 21 632 +/- 654 to 12 084 +/- 1723 pM x min for GIP, P<0.002; from 5145 +/- 677 to 3060 +/- 601 pM x min for GLP-1, P<0.05). Plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations were unaltered by the inhibitor. We have concluded that DPP IV inhibition with NVP-DPP728 prevents N-terminal degradation of endogenous incretins in vivo, resulting in increased plasma concentrations of intact, biologically active GIP and GLP-1. Total incretin secretion was reduced by DPP IV inhibition, suggesting the possibility of a feedback mechanism.
CF Deacon, S Wamberg, P Bie, TE Hughes, and JJ Holst
P A Martin and A Faulkner
The effects of intravenous somatostatin-28 (S28) infusion on glucose-stimulated and glucagon-like peptide-1(7–36)amide (GLP-1)-augmented insulin secretion were studied in sheep. S28 was infused via a jugular catheter for 15 min at a rate of 1·1 pmol/kg/min either alone or together with GLP-1 and/or glucose. S28 infusion did not significantly lower circulating basal insulin concentrations in fed sheep. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was significantly inhibited by S28 infusion, serum concentrations decreasing from about 200 to 150 pmol/l. GLP-1 significantly augmented glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, serum concentrations increasing from about 230 to 280 pmol/l. S28 completely counteracted this effect of GLP-1. S28 infusion also significantly decreased the circulating concentrations of glucose-dependent insulinotrophic polypeptide (GIP) and GLP-1 in fed sheep (from about 110 to 45 pmol/l for GIP and from about 25 to 15 pmol/l for GLP-1). The physiological implications of these observations are discussed with particular reference to the ruminant. It is concluded that S28 may have an important endocrine role in the control of insulin secretion and regulation of nutrient partitioning.
Journal of Endocrinology (1996) 151, 107–112
R. Göke and J. M. Conlon
Specific binding of 125I-labelled glucagon-like peptide-1(7–36)amide (GLP-1(7–36)amide) to rat insulinoma-derived RINm5F cells was dependent upon time and temperature and was proportional to cell concentration. Binding of radioactivity was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by GLP-1(7–36) amide consistent with the presence of a single class of binding site with a dissociation constant (K d) of 204± 8 pmol/l (mean ± s.e.m.). Binding of the peptide resulted in a dose-dependent increase in cyclic AMP concentrations (half maximal response at 250 ± 20 pmol/l). GLP-1(1–36)amide was approximately 200 times less potent than GLP-1(7–36)amide in inhibiting the binding of 125I-labelled GLP-1(7–36)amide to the cells (K d of 45±6 nmol/l). Binding sites for GLP-1 (7–36)amide were not present on dispersed enterocytes from porcine small intestine.
J. Endocr. (1988) 116, 357–362
D. J. O'Halloran, G. C. Nikou, B. Kreymann, M. A. Ghatei, and S. R. Bloom
Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 (7–36)-NH2 is a peptide found in the mucosal endocrine cells of the intestine, and plasma levels of GLP-1 (7–36)-NH2 immunoreactivity show a rise after the ingestion of a fat or mixed-component meal. We investigated the effects of physiological infusion of GLP-1 (7–36)-NH2 on a submaximal gastric acid secretion in healthy volunteers at a rate known to mimic the observed postprandial rise in plasma concentrations. Corrected gastric acid output decreased to less than 50% and volume output to 33% of stimulated values. After the infusion, the secretion of gastric acid recovered immediately to preinhibition values. These results suggest a novel role for GLP-1 (7–36)-NH2 as a physiological inhibitor of gastric acid secretion in man.
Journal of Endocrinology (1990) 126, 169–173
M L Villanueva-Peñacarrillo, E Delgado, M A Trapote, A Alcántara, F Clemente, M A Luque, A Perea, and I Valverde
We have found [125I]glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1(7–36)amide specific binding activity in rat liver and isolated hepatocyte plasma membranes, with an Mr of approximately 63 000, estimated by cross-linking and SDS-PAGE. The specific binding was time- and membrane protein concentration-dependent, and equally displaced by unlabelled GLP-1(7–36)amide and by GLP-1(1–36)amide, achieving its ID50 at 3×10−9 m of the peptides. GLP-1(7–36)amide did not modify the basal or the glucagon (10−8 m)-stimulated adenylate cyclase in the hepatocyte plasma membranes. These data, together with our previous findings of a potent glycogenic effect of GLP-1(7–36)amide in isolated rat hepatocytes, led us to postulate that the insulin-like effects of this peptide on glucose liver metabolism could be mediated by a type of receptor probably different from that described for GLP-1 in pancreatic B-cells or, alternatively, by the same receptor which, in this tissue as well as in muscle, uses a different transduction system.
Journal of Endocrinology (1995) 146, 183–189
J Claustre, S Brechet, P Plaisancie, JA Chayvialle, and JC Cuber
Postprandial release of peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) from L cells results from both nutrient transit in the ileal lumen and neural drive of endocrine cells. The adrenosympathetic system and its effectors have been shown to induce secretion of L cells in vivo or in vitro. Because these transmitters act through three receptors, beta, alpha1, alpha2, coupled to different intracellular pathways, we evaluated the responses of L cells to specific agonists, using the model of isolated vascularly perfused rat ileum. General stimulation of adrenergic receptors with epinephrine (10(-7) M) induced significant GLP-1 and PYY secretions (94+/-38 and 257+/-59 fmol/8 min respectively) which were abolished upon propranolol (10(-7) M) pretreatment and strongly decreased upon infusion with 10(-8) M prazosin. Blockade of alpha2-receptors with idazoxan (10(-8) M) did not alter epinephrine-induced peptide secretion. The beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (10(-6) M) infused for 30 min induced a transient release of GLP-1 and PYY (integrated release over the 8 min of the peak secretion: 38+/-16 and 214+/-69 fmol for GLP-1 and PYY respectively, P<0.05). Because terbutaline but not dobutamine or BRL 37,344 (10(-5) M) induced significant GLP-1 and PYY secretions (135+/-30 and 305+/-39 fmol/8 min respectively), isoproterenol-induced secretions are suggested to result mainly from stimulation of the beta2-isoreceptor type. In contrast, the alpha1-agonist phenylephrine (10(-7) M) did not stimulate peptide release. When co-infused with 10(-6) M or 10(-7) M isoproterenol, 10(-7) M phenylephrine raised GLP-1 release to 174+/-53 and 108+/-28 fmol/8 min respectively (vs 38+/-16 and 35+/-10 fmol/8 min for isoproterenol alone, P<0.05) whereas PYY secretion was not significantly increased. Clonidine (10(-7) M), an alpha2-agonist, induced a moderate and delayed increase of GLP-1 and PYY but abolished the isoproterenol-induced peptide secretion. Our results showed that general stimulation of adrenergic receptors stimulates the secretory activity of ileal endocrine L cells. The net peptide secretion results from the activation of the beta2-isoreceptor type. Additionally, GLP-1 and PYY secretions are positively modulated by alpha1-receptor stimulation and inhibited by alpha2-receptor activation upon beta-receptor occupation.
G. Richter, R. Göke, B. Göke, and R. Arnold
The effect of dexamethasone on binding of glucagonlike peptide-1(7–36)amide (GLP-1(7–36)amide) to rat insulinoma-derived cells (RINm5F) was investigated. Preincubation of RINm5F cells with dexamethasone (100 nmol/l) for 24 h resulted in a decrease of GLP1(7-36)amide binding to 55·0±8·16% (mean ± s.e.m.), incubation for 48 h to 39·1±1·76%, and for 72 h to 15·5±4·35% of maximal binding. The GLP-1(7–36)amide-induced stimulation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) production was significantly decreased to 61·03±7·4% of maximum production in cells pretreated with dexamethasone (100 nmol/l) for 48 h. The decreased binding was due to a reduction of the receptor number while the receptor affinity remained unchanged. These inhibitory effects on binding and cAMP formation induced by dexamethasone were completely abolished when the antiglucocorticoid RU 38486 (100 nmol/l) was added during preincubation with dexamethasone. RU 38486 alone had no effects. Our data suggest that the biological action of GLP-1(7–36) amide at the B-cell may be modified by glucocorticoids.
Journal of Endocrinology (1990) 126, 445–450
EG Siegel, A Seidenstucker, B Gallwitz, F Schmitz, A Reinecke-Luthge, G Kloppel, UR Folsch, and WE Schmidt
Liver cirrhosis is often accompanied by a disturbed carbohydrate metabolism similar to type 2 diabetes. To investigate the severity of the defect in insulin secretion in this form of diabetes, we measured insulin release from isolated pancreatic islets of rats with CCl(4)-phenobarbital-induced liver cirrhosis. Cirrhosis was confirmed by clinical signs, elevated liver enzymes and histology. Fasting venous plasma glucose concentrations were equal in rats with liver cirrhosis and in controls. Plasma insulin and glucagon concentrations were significantly greater (P<0.01) in cirrhotic rats than in control animals. Glucose (16.7 mM)-induced stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets revealed a twofold increase in control and cirrhotic rats. Basal and stimulated insulin secretion, however, were significantly lower in cirrhotic animals. The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), has therapeutic potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, islets from control and cirrhotic animals were incubated with GLP-1 in concentrations from 10(-)(11) to 10(-)(6) M. GLP-1 stimulated insulin release in a concentration-dependent manner. In islets from cirrhotic rats, basal and stimulated insulin secretion was blunted compared with controls. These data show that the hyperinsulinemia observed in liver cirrhosis is not due to an increase of insulin secretion from islets, but could be explained by decreased hepatic clearance of insulin. GLP-1 may ameliorate diabetes in patients with liver cirrhosis.
R. M. Elliott, L. M. Morgan, J. A. Tredger, S. Deacon, J. Wright, and V. Marks
The acute effects of different macronutrients on the secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1(7–36)amide (GLP-1(7–36)amide) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) were compared in healthy human subjects. Circulating levels of the two hormones were measured over a 24-h period during which subjects consumed a mixed diet. In the first study, eight subjects consumed three equicaloric (375 kcal) test meals of carbohydrate, fat and protein. Small increases in plasma GLP-1(7–36) amide were found after all meals. Levels reached a maximum 30 min after the carbohydrate and 150 min after the fat load. Ingestion of both carbohydrate and fat induced substantial rises in GIP secretion, but the protein meal had no effect. In a second study, eight subjects consumed 75 g glucose or the equivalent portion of complex carbohydrate as boiled brown rice or barley. Plasma GIP, insulin and glucose levels increased after all three meals, the largest increase being observed following glucose and the smallest following the barley meal. Plasma GLP-1(7–36)amide levels rose only following the glucose meal. In the 24-h study, plasma GLP-1(7–36)amide and GIP concentrations were increased following every meal and remained elevated throughout the day, only falling to fasting levels at night. The increases in circulating GLP-1(7–36)amide and GIP levels following carbohydrate or a mixed meal are consistent with their role as incretins. The more sustained rises observed in the daytime during the 24-h study are consistent with an anabolic role in lipid metabolism.
Journal of Endocrinology (1993) 138, 159–166
T. P. Mommsen and T. W. Moon
Salmon glucagon-like peptide (GLP), bovine glucagon (B-glucagon) and anglerfish glucagon (AF-glucagon), all activate glucose production in teleost hepatocytes through gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, but notable species differences exist in their respective effectiveness. In trout hepatocytes, gluconeogenesis appears to be the main target of hormone action. In eel cells, sampled in November, glycogenolysis was activated threefold, while gluconeogenesis was increased by 12% only. In March, glycogenolytic activation was 1·7-fold, while gluconeogenesis was increased by about 1·7-fold after exposure to B-glucagon. In brown bullhead cells, increases in glycogenolysis from seven- (GLP) to tenfold (B- and AF-glucagon) were noted, while activation of gluconeogenesis was slight. Fragments of two AF-glucagons (19–29) revealed only insignificant metabolic activity. Treatment of eel cells with B-glucagon led to large (up to 20-fold) increases in intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) concentrations, while exposure to GLP was accompanied by a modest (< twofold) increase in cAMP, although metabolic effectiveness (gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis) was similar for the two treatments. Under identical conditions, brown bullhead cellular cAMP responded poorly. Levels of cAMP peaked within 15 min following hormone application. The results imply that no simple or direct relationship exists between the amount of intracellular cAMP and the metabolic action of the glucagon family of hormones. It can further be concluded that GLPs are important regulators of hepatic metabolism, influencing identical targets as glucagon, while the mechanisms of action seem to differ.
Journal of Endocrinology (1990) 126, 109–118