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Z A Archer, S M Rhind, P A Findlay, C E Kyle, M C Barber, and C L Adam

infusion, the present sheep were food restricted and therefore in negative energy balance. In seasonal species such as sheep, however, GnRH output is primarily under photoperiodic regulation, with short days being stimulatory and long days

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Michael E Symonds, Mark Pope, Ian Bloor, James Law, Reham Alagal, and Helen Budge

production and as an endocrine organ ( Cypess et al. 2014 ). These different functions impact on a range of metabolic functions including appetite control, energy balance, glucose homeostasis, inflammation as well as the reproductive success ( Symonds et

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Shin-ya Ueda, Takahiro Yoshikawa, Yoshihiro Katsura, Tatsuya Usui, and Shigeo Fujimoto

session, but simply expressed as amount of energy ingested at lunch. In the present studies, we focused on how much energy subjects can consume at lunch after each session. In future studies, it is also worthwhile to evaluate the energy balance in the long

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L van Bloemendaal, J S ten Kulve, S E la Fleur, R G Ijzerman, and M Diamant

, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer ( Stratton et al . 2000 , Field et al . 2001 ). Obesity is the result of a long-term positive energy balance whereby energy intake surpasses expenditure. The CNS plays a major role in the maintenance of body

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María F Andreoli, Jose Donato Jr, Isin Cakir, and Mario Perello

1077 recruits STAT5, which mediates some effects of leptin on energy balance and reproduction as well as effects of prolactin ( Tups 2009 ). Leptin-induced JAK2 activation also leads to the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activation, which is the

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Adrian Holliday and Andrew Blannin

. However, the monitoring of food intake, physical activity and metabolic rate over the course of the whole day and beyond would be required to determine likely effects of the exercise bout, and subsequent appetite response, on energy balance. The post

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Jimena Laporta, Spencer A E Moore, Samantha R Weaver, Callyssa M Cronick, Megan Olsen, Austin P Prichard, Brian P Schnell, Thomas D Crenshaw, Francisco Peñagaricano, Rupert M Bruckmaier, and Laura L Hernandez

in the regulation of energy balance ( Tecott 2007 ), mainly through the modulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. The liver expresses TPH1 and several serotonin receptor subtypes ( Papadimas et al . 2012 ). Serotonin is thought to mediate hepatic

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Gabriel O de Souza, Fernanda M Chaves, Josiane N Silva, João A B Pedroso, Martin Metzger, Renata Frazão, and Jose Donato

-caloric diet intake) energy balance. Materials and methods Mice Changes in hypothalamic expression of connexins were determined in 5-month-old C57BL/6 male mice ( n  = 8/group). The effects of gap junctions on the activity of ARH AgRP neurons

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Clare M Reynolds and Mark H Vickers

a negative feedback loop to maintain homeostatic control of adipose tissue mass. This then stimulates a negative energy balance controlling appetite and increasing energy expenditure ( Friedman 2016 ). Leptin also exerts its actions across a wide

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M J Vazquez, I Velasco, and M Tena-Sempere

), and hence, is essential for maintenance of energy balance at the whole body level ( Martins et al. 2012 ). In this context, studies carried out in our group demonstrated that hypothalamic mTOR plays an important role in the metabolic control of