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Rosalia C M Simmen, Dustin M Brown, Charles M Quick, Iad Alhallak, Tyler Rose, Shi J Liu, and Angela S Kelley

Introduction Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease, resulting from the destruction of insulin-producing β-cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans, which leads to a state of hypoinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. In 2015, 1

Open access

Bernadette M Trojanowski, Heba H Salem, Heike Neubauer, Eric Simon, Martin Wagner, Rajkumar Dorajoo, Bernhard O Boehm, Leticia Labriola, Thomas Wirth, and Bernd Baumann

Introduction Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a clinically heterogeneous form of diabetes that is inherited in an autosomal-dominant pattern and in general, affected families have a history of diabetes over several generations

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Laura Marroqui, Eva Tudurí, Paloma Alonso-Magdalena, Iván Quesada, Ángel Nadal, and Reinaldo Sousa dos Santos

Introduction Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic, lifelong condition characterized by hyperglycaemia resulting from persistent insulin resistance (IR) and/or insufficient insulin production due to β-cell dysfunction or death ( Prentki & Nolan

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Sheree D Martin and Sean L McGee

2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer ( Eyre et al . 2004 ). While common molecular mechanisms are only just beginning to emerge, there has been a wealth of epidemiological data describing the overlap between many of the diseases. Among this

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Sofie Dinesen, Alisar El-Faitarouni, and Louise T Dalgaard

Introduction The current worldwide obesity epidemic drives an increased incidence and prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) as well as type 2 diabetes (T2D) in pregnancy ( Sun et al. 2022 ). In 2019, according to the

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Daiana Fornes, Florencia Heinecke, Cintia Romina Gatti, Sabrina Lorena Roberti, Verónica White, Alicia Jawerbaum, and Evangelina Capobianco

Introduction The growing prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes has been related not only to sedentary lifestyle, the ingestion of hypercaloric diets and the genetic background but also to the fetal programming of glucose intolerance

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Jung Han Kim, Taryn P Stewart, Morvarid Soltani-Bejnood, Luan Wang, Jennifer M Fortuna, Ola A Mostafa, Naima Moustaid-Moussa, Ahmed M Shoieb, Michael F McEntee, Yun Wang, Lawrence Bechtel, and Jürgen K Naggert

Introduction The prevalence of diabetes is growing worldwide and it is estimated that 366 million people will be affected by the year 2030 (171 million in the year 2000; Wild et al. 2004 ). Diabetes is associated with an increased

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Sarah J Richardson and Alberto Pugliese

Introduction Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic disease characterized by severe loss of insulin secretion, requiring insulin replacement therapy for the individual’s lifetime. The disease is often diagnosed in children and adolescents, but

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Yuichi Kikuchi, Muneharu Yamada, Toshihiko Imakiire, Taketoshi Kushiyama, Keishi Higashi, Naomi Hyodo, Kojiro Yamamoto, Takashi Oda, Shigenobu Suzuki, and Soichiro Miura

Introduction The population with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome has been increasing worldwide and diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause in many countries, requiring renal replacement therapy. Obesity and insulin

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Mina Elahy, Swati Baindur-Hudson, Vinicius F Cruzat, Philip Newsholme, and Crispin R Dass

most devastating acquired vascular complications of diabetes mellitus, is responsible for affecting overall life quality worldwide. It has been estimated that the number of Americans suffering from DR will be 16 million by 2050 ( Milne & Brownstein 2013