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Virginia L Pszczolkowski, Meghan K Connelly, Adam D Beard, Amara D Benn, Jimena Laporta, Laura L Hernandez, and Sebastian I Arriola Apelo

fatty acids (FFAs) while decreasing insulin concentrations ( Laporta et al. 2015 ). In lactating rats, dietary 5-HTP supplementation stimulated the expression of gluconeogenic genes in the liver and mammary glucose transporters ( Laporta et al. 2013

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Filipe de Vadder and Gilles Mithieux

metabolized by the host intestinal enzymes, but are metabolized by the microbiota in the cecum and colon ( Macfarlane & Macfarlane 2003 ). The major products from the microbial fermentation are short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), namely acetate, propionate and

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Yu-Feng Zhao, Jianming Pei, and Chen Chen

Introduction Type 2 diabetes is linked to obesity and high levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) ( Unger 1995 , Kahn & Flier 2000 , Wyne 2003 , Moller & Kaufman 2005 ). One of the pathways by which FFAs contribute to the occurrence of type 2 diabetes

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T Clark Brelje, Nicholas V Bhagroo, Laurence E Stout, and Robert L Sorenson

-cell proliferation from their peaks in mid-pregnancy to control levels by parturition. However, serum lipids, triglyceride, and free fatty acids also increase several fold during pregnancy ( Scow et al . 1964 , Knopp et al . 1973 , Chen et al . 1992 ). This

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David A Baltzegar, Benjamin J Reading, Jonathon D Douros, and Russell J Borski

total metabolic energy demand ( Morgan et al . 1997 , Bœuf & Payan 2001 ). The primary site of ion exchange is the gill ( Evans et al . 2005 ), which has a low capacity for the oxidation of fatty acids or ketones ( Segner et al . 1997 , Crockett et

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Aldo Grefhorst, Johanna C van den Beukel, Wieneke Dijk, Jacobie Steenbergen, Gardi J Voortman, Selmar Leeuwenburgh, Theo J Visser, Sander Kersten, Edith C H Friesema, Axel P N Themmen, and Jenny A Visser

Introduction Two different types of adipose tissues are found in mammals: white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). BAT plays an important role in thermogenesis by oxidizing fatty acids in order to generate heat instead of ATP

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Li Feng, Ling Gao, Qingbo Guan, Xiaolei Hou, Qiang Wan, Xiangdong Wang, and Jiajun Zhao

Introduction The high-fat (HF) diet with a high ratio of saturated fatty acid is considered as a risk factor for insulin resistance, while moderate ethanol drinking was reported to have beneficial effect on insulin sensitivity ( Kiechl et al . 1996

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Dan Wang, Chu-Dan Liu, Meng-Li Tian, Cheng-Quan Tan, Gang Shu, Qing-Yan Jiang, Lin Zhang, and Yu-Long Yin

beneficial effects of dietary fibers are, at least partially, attributed to their fermentation end products by gut microbiota, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) ( Koh et al. 2016 , Makki et al. 2018 ). Among SCFAs, propionate has been identified as

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Ashley Patton, Tyler Church, Caroline Wilson, Jean Thuma, Douglas J Goetz, Darlene E Berryman, Edward O List, Frank Schwartz, and Kelly D McCall

patients with NAFLD ( Younossi et al . 2011 ). High-fat (HF) diets promote weight gain leading to an increase in adipose tissue mass (i.e. obesity). Simultaneously, these HF diets cause an increase in levels of circulating free fatty acids (FFAs) and

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Antonio Gázquez, Francisca Rodríguez, María Sánchez-Campillo, Lidia E Martínez-Gascón, Marino B Arnao, Pedro Saura-Garre, María D Albaladejo-Otón, and Elvira Larqué

transport of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3, DHA) by GDM ( Herrera & Ortega-Senovilla 2010 , Leveille et al. 2018 ), likely as a consequence of alterations in fatty acids (FA) transport proteins related to phospholipids transfer such as the major