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Wenjing Wang, Lisa Upshaw, D Michael Strong, R Paul Robertson, and JoAnna Reems

measuring the function of islets are only available after a clinical islet transplant is completed. These tests include the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion assay ( Ashcroft et al. 1971 , Andersson et al. 1976 , Gray et al. 1984 , de Haan et al

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Sophie E Leney and Jeremy M Tavaré

Introduction Glucose homeostasis and diabetes mellitus The ability of insulin to stimulate glucose uptake into muscle and adipose tissue is central to the maintenance of whole-body glucose homeostasis. Autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic β

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Shibin Ding, Ying Fan, Nana Zhao, Huiqin Yang, Xiaolei Ye, Dongliang He, Xin Jin, Jian Liu, Chong Tian, Hongyu Li, Shunqing Xu, and Chenjiang Ying

and cause hyperinsulinemia in Swiss albino OF1 male mice (8–10 weeks old) ( Alonso-Magdalena et al . 2006 , 2008 ). Moreover, glucokinase has been demonstrated to be the body's glucose sensor in the liver, and acute and short-term (2 weeks) exposures

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Lei Huang, Bin Qiu, Lin Yuan, Lili Zheng, Qiang Li, and Shigong Zhu

quantitative PCR. The changes in DVC ghrelin levels were examined under the conditions of regular diet, fasting, and different blood glucose levels. The effect of the vagus nerve on DVC ghrelin levels was also investigated by electrostimulation or ablation of

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Qiongge Zhang, Chaoqun Wang, Yehua Tang, Qiangqiang Zhu, Yongcheng Li, Haiyan Chen, Yi Bao, Song Xue, Liangliang Sun, Wei Tang, Xiangfang Chen, Yongquan Shi, Lefeng Qu, Bin Lu, and Jiaoyang Zheng

), which play critical roles in different kinds of organs or cells, respectively. For example, nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATs) has been found to be involved in the regulation of high glucose-induced OPN expression in VSMCs ( Nilsson-Berglund et

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Chan-Juan Ma, Ai-Fang Nie, Zhi-Jian Zhang, Zhi-Guo Zhang, Li Du, Xiao-Ying Li, and Guang Ning

by 2030. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies on humans suggest that a defect in insulin-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle is the primary metabolic abnormality in insulin-resistant patients with type 2 diabetes. Although skeletal

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María Sol Kruse, Mariana Rey, María Cristina Vega, and Héctor Coirini

). LXRs are also involved in glucose homeostasis. It was recently demonstrated that LXR expression is increased in pancreatic β cells in type 2 diabetes ( Choe et al . 2007 ). LXR stimulation normalizes glycemia and improves insulin sensitivity in rodent

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João Paulo G Camporez, Mohamed Asrih, Dongyan Zhang, Mario Kahn, Varman T Samuel, Michael J Jurczak, and François R Jornayvaz

growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an important regulator of glucose metabolism ( Kharitonenkov et al . 2005 ). FGF21 levels are increased in NAFLD and correlate with hepatic triglyceride content ( Li et al . 2010 ); therefore, FGF21 is considered an emergent

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Odelia Katz, Matthew Stuible, Nathalia Golishevski, Lilach Lifshitz, Michel L Tremblay, Max Gassmann, Moshe Mittelman, and Drorit Neumann

respect, we have been attracted by the reports of EPO effects on glucose metabolism in hemodialysis patients ( Borissova et al . 1993 , Allegra et al . 1996 ), which are associated with elevated insulin sensitivity ( Spaia et al . 2000 , Tuzcu et al

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Juliane K Czeczor, Amanda J Genders, Kathryn Aston-Mourney, Timothy Connor, Liam G Hall, Kyoko Hasebe, Megan Ellis, Kirstie A De Jong, Darren C Henstridge, Peter J Meikle, Mark A Febbraio, Ken Walder, and Sean L McGee

protects against diet-induced obesity ( Meakin et al . 2012 ). Mechanistically, loss of BACE-1 or BACE-1 inhibition increases non-amyloidogenic processing of APP and sAPPα production, which enhances glucose oxidation in muscle cells ( Hamilton et al