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Aowen Zhuang and Josephine M Forbes

the pathophysiology of both insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia in obesity and T2D. Each of these would clearly affect diabetic kidney disease where there are clear benefits of strict glycaemic ( Patel et al . 2008 , Gerstein et al . 2008 ) and

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Paul Millar, Nupur Pathak, Vadivel Parthsarathy, Anthony J Bjourson, Maurice O’Kane, Varun Pathak, R Charlotte Moffett, Peter R Flatt, and Victor A Gault

sensitivity, most likely as a result of sustained reduction in hyperglycaemia, alleviation of glucose toxicity and weight reduction through enhanced caloric loss ( Macdonald et al . 2010 , Mudaliar et al . 2014 , Merovci et al . 2015 , Millar et al

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H Del Zotto, M I Borelli, L Flores, M E García, C L Gómez Dumm, A Chicco, Y B Lombardo, and J J Gagliardino

-positive cells depicted in CD12 as compared with CD6 rats represents an effort of the rat pancreas to compensate for the low – or absent – neogenetic response to the INGAP stimulus (INGAP resistance?). The moderate hyperglycaemia present in our rats and

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Antonio Gázquez, Francisca Rodríguez, María Sánchez-Campillo, Lidia E Martínez-Gascón, Marino B Arnao, Pedro Saura-Garre, María D Albaladejo-Otón, and Elvira Larqué

is affected by hyperglycaemia in pregnancy, most of those due to GDM ( International Diabetes Federation 2017 ). GDM is associated with neonatal adverse outcomes such as large for gestational age infants and increased risk of obesity and

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Neil Tanday, Peter R Flatt, Nigel Irwin, and R Charlotte Moffett

( Vasu et al . 2015 ). As expected, the presenting metabolic characteristics and associated pancreatic morphology differed between each mouse model ( Vasu et al . 2015 ). Thus, STZ mice exhibited hyperglycaemia-insulin deficiency, whereas HFF and HC

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Maaike M Roefs, Françoise Carlotti, Katherine Jones, Hannah Wills, Alexander Hamilton, Michael Verschoor, Joanna M Williams Durkin, Laura Garcia-Perez, Melissa F Brereton, Laura McCulloch, Marten A Engelse, Paul R V Johnson, Barbara C Hansen, Kevin Docherty, Eelco J P de Koning, and Anne Clark

development and embryonic differentiation (e.g. Pdx1, Ngn3, MafA, Foxo1, Arx, Pax4) are involved in the regulation of these processes and can be triggered by stimuli including hyperglycaemia and cellular stress ( Jonas et al. 1999 , Dhawan et al. 2011

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Dawn E W Livingstone, Sarah L Grassick, Gillian L Currie, Brian R Walker, and Ruth Andrew

steatosis was more marked in the ob/ob mice, whereas the activity of 5β-reductase was increased to a greater extent in db/db mice. The db/db mice demonstrated partial insulin deficiency, and progression towards hyperglycaemia, whereas the ob/ob mice

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Richard W Nelson and Claudia E Reusch

diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis . Journal of the American Medical Association 302 179 – 188 . ( doi:10.1001/jama.2009.976 ) Link KR Allio I Rand JS Eppler E 2013 The effect of experimentally induced chronic hyperglycaemia on

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Keiko Nakahara, Rieko Okame, Tetsuro Katayama, Mikiya Miyazato, Kenji Kangawa, and Noboru Murakami

185 – 190 doi:10.1210/en.143.1.185 . Ludwig AK Weiss JM Tauchert S Dietze T Rudolf S Diedrich K Peters A Oltmanns KM 2007 Influence of hypo- and hyperglycaemia on plasma leptin concentrations in healthy women and in women with

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Maureen J Charron and Patricia M Vuguin

Jorgensen PN Svendsen I Kristensen JS Holst JJ 1994 Immunoneutralization of endogenous glucagon with monoclonal glucagon antibody normalizes hyperglycaemia in moderately streptozotocin-diabetic rats . Diabetologia 37 985 – 993 . ( doi:10