There are conflicting reports on the effect of serum from patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or normal human serum on beta-cell function and insulin secretion. Here, we report that the sera of newly diagnosed IDDM patients potently suppresses insulin secretion from a clonal rat pancreatic beta-cell line (BRIN-BD11), but do not alter cell viability. Indeed, the viability of the beta-cells was not significantly different between cells cultured in 10% (v/v) IDDM sera, normal human sera, or fetal calf serum after 24, 48 and 72 h. Alanine-stimulated insulin secretion from cells cultured for 24 h in (10% v/v) IDDM patient sera was reduced to 48% of that secreted from cells cultured in (10% v/v) normal human sera. After depletion of the complement components C1q and C3, the inhibition of insulin secretion induced by IDDM patient sera was significantly reversed (no significant difference was observed between cells cultured in complement-depleted IDDM patient sera and cells cultured in normal human sera or complement-depleted normal human sera). The concentration of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) autoantibodies was markedly increased in the sera of six out of nine newly diagnosed IDDM patients in this study, whereas insulin auto-antibodies (IAA) were detected in the sera of three of the nine patients and islet-cell antibodies (ICA) in the sera of five of them. In addition, the concentration of soluble terminal complement complexes (SC5-9) was greater in some of the beta-cell culture media samples after 24 h incubation when the incubation medium was supplemented with IDDM patient sera than when supplementation was with normal human sera. We propose that the mechanism of sera-induced inhibition of insulin secretion from clonal beta-cells may involve complement- and cytokine-stimulated intracellular events that attenuate the metabolite-induced secretory process.
SJ Conroy, YH Abdel-Wahab, EM Caraher, PM Byrne, E Murphy, J Nolan, PR Flatt, and P Newsholme
James E Bowe, Zara J Franklin, Astrid C Hauge-Evans, Aileen J King, Shanta J Persaud, and Peter M Jones
using the same animal strain, it is worth noting that changing animal source may introduce variability as different levels of insulin secretion have been reported in C57BL/6 mice from different suppliers ( Freeman et al . 2006 , Mekada et al . 2009
D. G. Lambert and T. W. Atkins
The effects of the islet cell hormones glucagon, somatostatin-28 and pancreatic polypeptide on insulin secretion from cultured cloned pancreatic B cells (HIT-T15 and RINm5F) have been investigated. Glucagon stimulates the secretion of insulin from HIT-T15 cells in the absence and presence of glucose and from RINm5F cells in the absence and presence of glyceraldehyde. HIT-T15 cells were more sensitive to the stimulatory effect of glucagon than RINm5F cells. Somatostatin-28 and pancreatic polypeptide, both alone and in combination, reduced glucose- and glucagon-stimulated insulin release from HIT-T15 cells and glyceraldehyde- and glucagon-stimulated insulin release from RINm5F cells. HIT-T15 cells were more sensitive to the inhibitory actions of somatostatin-28 and pancreatic polypeptide than RINm5F cells. This study supports the hypothesis that insulin release from normal B cells may be modified by the paracrine activity of islet hormones, glucagon, somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide and probably occurs before any fine tuning imposed by subsequently released insulin.
Journal of Endocrinology (1989) 121, 479–485
K Iizuka, H Nakajima, A Ono, K Okita, J Miyazaki, J Miyagawa, M Namba, T Hanafusa, and Y Matsuzawa
Glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) hydrolyzes glucose-6-phosphate to glucose, reciprocal with the so-called glucose sensor, glucokinase, in pancreatic beta cells. To study the role of G-6-Pase in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from beta cells, we have introduced rat G-6-Pase catalytic subunit cDNA and have established permanent clones with 3-, 7- and 24-fold G-6-Pase activity of the mouse beta-cell line, MIN6. In these clones, glucose usage and ATP production in the presence of 5.5 or 25 mM glucose were reduced, and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was decreased in proportion to the increased G-6-Pase activity. In addition, insulin secretory capacity in response to d-fructose and pyruvate was unchanged; however, 25 mM glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and intracellular calcium response were completely inhibited. In the clone with 24-fold G-6-Pase activity, changes in intracellular NAD(P)H autofluorescence in response to 25 mM glucose were reduced, but the changes with 20 mM fructose and 20 mM pyruvate were not altered. Stable overexpression of G-6-Pase in beta cells resulted in attenuation of the overall glucose-stimulated metabolic responses corresponding to the degree of overexpression. This particular experimental manipulation shows that the possibility exists of modulating glucose-stimulated insulin release by thoroughly altering glucose cycling at the glucokinase/G-6-Pase step.
A. Salehi and I. Lundquist
In previous in-vivo studies we have presented indirect evidence for the involvement of islet acid glucan-1,4-α-glucosidase (acid amyloglucosidase), a lysosomal glycogen-hydrolysing enzyme, in certain insulin secretory processes. In the present combined in-vitro and in-vivo investigation, we studied whether differential changes in islet acid amyloglucosidase activity were related to the insulin secretory response induced by two mechanistically different secretagogues, glucose and isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX). It was observed that addition of the selective α-glucosidehydrolase inhibitor emiglitate (1 mmol/l) to isolated pancreatic islets resulted in a marked reduction of glucose-induced insulin release. This was accompanied by a pronounced suppression of islet activities of acid amyloglucosidase and acid α-glucosidase, whereas other lysosomal enzyme activities, such as acid phosphatase and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase, were unaffected. Furthermore, islets first incubated with emiglitate in the presence of high (16·7 mmol/l) glucose released less insulin than untreated controls in response to glucose in a second incubation period in the absence of emiglitate. In contrast, IBMX-induced insulin release was not influenced by emiglitate although accompanied by a marked reduction of islet activities of all three α-glucosidehydrolases. Basal insulin secretion (1 mmol glucose/1) was unaffected in the presence of emiglitate. In-vivo pretreatment of mice with highly purified fungal amyloglucosidase ('enzyme replacement'), a procedure known to increase islet amyloglucosidase activity, resulted in a greatly enhanced insulin secretory response to an i.v. glucose load. The increase in insulin release was accompanied by a markedly improved glucose tolerance curve in these animals. In contrast, enzyme pretreatment did not influence the insulin response or the blood glucose levels after an i.v. injection of IBMX. The data lend further support to our hypothesis that islet acid amyloglucosidase is involved in the multifactorial insulin secretory processes induced by glucose but not in those involving direct activation of the cyclic AMP system. The results also indicate separate, or at least partially separate, pathways for insulin release induced by glucose and IBMX.
Journal of Endocrinology (1993) 138, 391–400
Isabel Göhring and Hindrik Mulder
Glutamate dehydrogenase and insulin secretion Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is a pivotal enzyme in the control of substrate flux from glutamine to α-ketoglutarate over glutamate ( Karaca et al . 2011 ). This pathway is essentially an anaplerotic
L. V. Beck, Ilora Basu, and Sally L. Hegeman
Anti-insulin serum (AIS) injected intravenously into adult male mice was allowed to complex endogenous plasma insulin for a fixed time before blood samples were taken. In each plasma sample, insulin was separated from antibody using acid alcohol and the free insulin was estimated by radioimmunoassay. We consider AIS to be most useful for the estimations of in-vivo insulin secretion rates over the period 0·5–5 min after its injection. The lower limit is governed by the time required for mixing and complexing of endogenous insulin. The use of a short upper limit is because antibody complexed with antigen leaves plasma more rapidly than does free antibody, carrying antigen with it. Increases in insulin per ml plasma were appreciably greater in mice injected with glucose or l-arginine plus AIS than in mice injected with glucose or l-arginine only. Hence more realistic values for in-vivo insulin secretion rates may be obtained by the use of AIS to retain most insulin in plasma than by estimations of plasma insulin levels.
Andrew W Norris, Katie Larson Ode, Lina Merjaneh, Srinath Sanda, Yaling Yi, Xingshen Sun, John F Engelhardt, and Rebecca L Hull
, these findings support an overarching relationship between exocrine pancreatic pathology, islet pathology/dysfunction and AGT in CF. Impaired insulin secretion is a key determinant of hyperglycemia in cystic fibrosis In CF subjects, β
Erica Yeo, Patricia L Brubaker, and Deborah M Sloboda
tissues (muscle and adipose) and centrally in the liver and is compensated for by increased insulin secretion from the maternal pancreatic β-cell. Hepatic glucose output is increased, and blood glucose levels are increased in later pregnancy. Together
Juliane K Czeczor, Amanda J Genders, Kathryn Aston-Mourney, Timothy Connor, Liam G Hall, Kyoko Hasebe, Megan Ellis, Kirstie A De Jong, Darren C Henstridge, Peter J Meikle, Mark A Febbraio, Ken Walder, and Sean L McGee
reduces insulin secretion from isolated islets ( Kulas et al . 2017 ). This same study showed that sAPPα increased insulin secretion from isolated islets at specific glucose concentrations ( Kulas et al . 2017 ). However, it is unclear whether APP has