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Yusuke Seino, Takashi Miki, Wakako Fujimoto, Eun Young Lee, Yoshihisa Takahashi, Kohtaro Minami, Yutaka Oiso, and Susumu Seino

Introduction Insulin secreted from pancreatic β-cells plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Insulin secretion is regulated by various factors including nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids

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Philip Newsholme, Vinicius Cruzat, Frank Arfuso, and Kevin Keane

stream, they have an important clinical impact. Diminished glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and β-cell failure correlate with DM development ( Jensen et al . 2008 , Newsholme & Krause 2012 ), and consequently it is important to determine the

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Daniel Simões, Patrícia Riva, Rodrigo Antonio Peliciari-Garcia, Vinicius Fernandes Cruzat, Maria Fernanda Graciano, Ana Claudia Munhoz, Marco Taneda, José Cipolla-Neto, and Angelo Rafael Carpinelli

stimulatory effect of melatonin in the pancreas ( Peschke & Peschke 1998 ), there are consistent scientific evidences supporting that melatonin inhibits insulin secretion in islets ( Peschke et al. 2000 ) and clonal beta cell lines ( Mühlbauer & Peschke 2007

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Juan P Zúñiga-Hertz, Eduardo Rebelato, Adam Kassan, Abdelrahman M Khalifa, Sameh S Ali, Hemal H Patel, and Fernando Abdulkader

Introduction Insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells is coupled with changes in the extracellular glucose concentration, as glucose uptake and metabolism lead to an increase in the intracellular ATP:ADP ratio. This results in an electrical response

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Nguyen Khanh Hoa, Åke Norberg, Rannar Sillard, Dao Van Phan, Nguyen Duy Thuan, Dang Thi Ngoc Dzung, Hans Jörnvall, and Claes-Göran Östenson

-cell K-ATP channel (DeFronzo1999, Brown et al. 2004 ). Glucose-stimulated biphasic insulin secretion involves at least two signaling pathways, the K-ATP channel-dependent and K-ATP channel-independent pathways respectively ( Chow et al. 1995

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Brit H Boehmer, Peter R Baker II, Laura D Brown, Stephanie R Wesolowski, and Paul J Rozance

Introduction Metabolism of nutrients by the β-cell in the pancreatic islet is key to nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion. This is described by the fuel-mediated hypothesis of insulin release ( Malaisse et al. 1979 ). The fuel

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Hideyuki Takahashi, Yohei Kurose, Muneyuki Sakaida, Yoshihiro Suzuki, Shigeki Kobayashi, Toshihisa Sugino, Masayasu Kojima, Kenji Kangawa, Yoshihisa Hasegawa, and Yoshiaki Terashima

role in the regulation of pancreatic insulin secretion. Some studies in rats show that ghrelin stimulates insulin secretion in vivo ( Lee et al. 2002 ) and in vitro ( Date et al. 2002 , Adeghate & Ponery 2002 ). Others show that ghrelin

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Muhammed Yusuf Ali, Matthew Whiteman, Chian-Ming Low, and Philip K Moore

, Ashcroft & Gribble 1998 ). K ATP channels are therefore crucial in this pathway since they act to link metabolic state of the cell with insulin secretion. Reduced insulin secretion and/or insulin sensitivity results in diabetes mellitus; a complex disease

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T S McQuaid, M C Saleh, J W Joseph, A Gyulkhandanyan, J E Manning-Fox, J D MacLellan, M B Wheeler, and C B Chan

Introduction Previously, uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) was identified in islets and shown to be a negative regulator of insulin secretion ( Chan et al. 1999 , 2001 , Hong et al. 2001 , Zhang et al. 2001 ). Ucp2 mRNA and

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Min Joo Kim, Se Hee Min, Seon Young Shin, Mi Na Kim, Hakmo Lee, Jin Young Jang, Sun-Whe Kim, Kyong Soo Park, and Hye Seung Jung

, they were reported to be slightly glucose intolerant ( Harding et al . 2001 ); however, Wang and coworkers found that Perk +/− mice exhibited enhanced insulin secretion during neonatal and juvenile development, resulting in a transient reduction in