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Kook Hwan Kim and Myung-Shik Lee

of the beneficial metabolic effects of several therapeutic agents ( Fig. 1 ). Figure 1 Functional role of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) secreted from multiple organs in response to diverse stresses or stimuli. FGF21 expression is induced in

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M J F Newson, G R Pope, E M Roberts, S J Lolait, and A-M O'Carroll

multiple homeostatic perturbations. These include regulation of fluid ( O'Carroll & Lolait 2003 ) and cardiovascular homeostasis ( Ishida et al . 2004 ), the stress response ( O'Carroll et al . 2003 ), food intake ( Taheri et al . 2002 ), gastric cell

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Shan-xue Jin, David A Dickson, Jamie Maguire, and Larry A Feig

Introduction The body’s reaction to environmental stressors involves sequential hormone release in the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis ( McEwen 2007 ). These perturbations stimulate cortisone (corticosterone in rodents) (CORT

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Christian Tudorache, Marcel J M Schaaf, and Hans Slabbekoorn

Introduction All vertebrates exhibit physiological responses to stress, which are at the basis of appropriate behavioural adaptation. The amplitude and profile of these responses depend on the intensity, duration, controllability and predictability

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Roman A Romanov, Alán Alpár, Tomas Hökfelt, and Tibor Harkany

that the co-localization of CRH with secretagogin is a defining hallmark of ‘stress on’ CRH neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Organization of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis: from systems to molecules The

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Ann T Hanna-Mitchell, Amanda Wolf-Johnston, James R Roppolo, Tony C A Buffington, and Lori A Birder

Introduction Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a 41-amino acid hypothalamic neuropeptide ( Vale et al . 1981 ), plays a central role in the orchestration of behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stress ( Stengel & Tache 2010 ). This

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Saadia Basharat, Jennifer A Parker, Kevin G Murphy, Stephen R Bloom, Julia C Buckingham, and Christopher D John

inhibitory role in the regulation of the HPA axis ( Maffei et al . 1995 ). Leptin administration blunts the restraint stress-induced activation of the HPA axis in mice ( Heiman et al . 1997 ) and can directly inhibit ACTH-stimulated cortisol

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Katherine N Makowski, Michael J Kreisman, Richard B McCosh, Ali A Raad, and Kellie M Breen

Introduction It is well accepted that stress can impair reproduction by suppressing gonadotropin secretion; yet, the various factors and neural mechanisms mediating the response to stress are still poorly defined. Acute immune or inflammatory

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Jiju Wang, Yunhui Tang, Songcun Wang, Liyuan Cui, Dajin Li, and Meirong Du

Introduction In modern society, young women face extensive social and life pressures. Long-term sustained or acute stress can lead to a pathological state that impacts the reproductive system ( Frazier et al. 2018 , Wang et al. 2019

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Nathalie Marissal-Arvy, Rachel Hamiani, Emmanuel Richard, Marie-Pierre Moisan, and Véronique Pallet

was hypoactive and hyporeactive to different stressors ( Helies et al . 2005 , Marissal-Arvy et al . 2007 , 2011 ). This study aimed to explore the role played by retinoids in the hypoactivity and hyporeactivity of the HPA axis in LOU/C rats. For