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Tanja Jene, Inigo Ruiz de Azua, Annika Hasch, Jennifer Klüpfel, Julia Deuster, Mirjam Maas, Cora H Nijboer, Beat Lutz, Marianne B Müller, and Michael A van der Kooij

several maladaptive consequences, including the development of the metabolic syndrome ( Russell & Lightman 2019 ). Major risk factors for the metabolic syndrome include obesity and elevated blood glucose levels ( Sherling et al. 2017 ). In agreement

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Bettina Geidl-Flueck and Philipp A Gerber

includes obesity (particularly visceral adipose tissue accumulation), dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and hypertension. Importantly, this syndrome not only affects adults but also children and adolescents, in particular in developing countries

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Jimena Laporta, Spencer A E Moore, Samantha R Weaver, Callyssa M Cronick, Megan Olsen, Austin P Prichard, Brian P Schnell, Thomas D Crenshaw, Francisco Peñagaricano, Rupert M Bruckmaier, and Laura L Hernandez

in the regulation of energy balance ( Tecott 2007 ), mainly through the modulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. The liver expresses TPH1 and several serotonin receptor subtypes ( Papadimas et al . 2012 ). Serotonin is thought to mediate hepatic

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Anna H Kongsted, Sanne V Husted, Malin P Thygesen, Vibeke G Christensen, Dominique Blache, Anders Tolver, Torben Larsen, Bjørn Quistorff, and Mette O Nielsen

whose in utero environment and early postnatal environments are mismatched and thus are at a risk of adverse health outcomes later in life. The conventional tests to study glucose–insulin axis function are not adequate in this respect, as the negative

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Salvatore P Mangiafico, Shueh H Lim, Sandra Neoh, Helene Massinet, Christos N Joannides, Joseph Proietto, Sofianos Andrikopoulos, and Barbara C Fam

Introduction Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterised by glucose intolerance that is contributed to by both defects in insulin action (in liver and muscle/fat) and insulin secretion. Whether defects in both insulin action and secretion are necessary

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Björn Åkerblom, Sebastian Barg, Gabriela Calounova, Dariush Mokhtari, Leif Jansson, and Michael Welsh

Introduction The blood glucose level in the body is tightly regulated within narrow limits by several factors, of which the hormone insulin, produced by the β-cells in the islets of Langerhans, is the most pivotal. Interference with β-cell function

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Valerie M Harris, Sachin V Bendre, Francina Gonzalez De Los Santos, Alemu Fite, Ahmad El-Yaman El-Dandachli, Lyazat Kurenbekova, Abdul B Abou-Samra, and Colleen Buggs-Saxton

ovary and testis to release sex steroids and induce oocyte maturation and spermatogenesis, respectively. Glucose is an important fuel for hypothalamic regulation of the reproductive axis. It is well known that across species a reduction in glucose

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C G Walker, M C Sugden, G F Gibbons, and M J Holness

Introduction The ability of adipocytes to store triglyceride (TAG) provides animals with a fuel store for use in time of need. In the fed state, insulin increases adipocyte TAG storage by augmenting adipocyte glucose uptake, allowing

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James E Bowe, Zara J Franklin, Astrid C Hauge-Evans, Aileen J King, Shanta J Persaud, and Peter M Jones

). Furthermore, genetically modified mouse models in which genes are up- or down-regulated either globally or in a tissue-specific manner are increasingly used to assess the physiological role of a potential target in glucose homeostasis and the development of

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Sandra K Szlapinski, Anthony A Botros, Sarah Donegan, Renee T King, Gabrielle Retta, Brenda J Strutt, and David J Hill

( Newbern & Freemark 2011 ) which is essential for maintaining trans-placental transport of glucose to the fetus for optimal development. To compensate for insulin resistance, the maternal pancreas responds by increasing endocrine pancreatic β-cell mass (BCM