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Maria Carolina S Mendes, Gustavo D Pimentel, Felipe O Costa, and José B C Carvalheira

, several factors such as increased levels of hormones, cytokines and factors secreted by the tumor as well as deregulation of control by the hypothalamus of energy expenditure and hunger/satiety promote cancer cachexia ( Fig. 1 ). Figure 1 Tumor

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Brenton T Laing, Khoa Do, Tomoko Matsubara, David W Wert, Michael J Avery, Erin M Langdon, Donghai Zheng, and Hu Huang

and energy expenditure, which are tightly controlled by the CNS ( Morton et al. 2006 ). The CNS controls the important aspects of metabolism, particularly in the hypothalamus, where neurons directly respond to physiological changes such as hunger and

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Tony M Plant

-stimulating properties of pituitary gonadotropin, the relative insignificance of gonadal nerves to gonadal function and the concept of neurosecretion. The problem for Harris and his fellow neuroendocrinologists was how did the hypothalamus regulate the secretion of the

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Cassandra C Yap, Michaela D Wharfe, Peter J Mark, Brendan J Waddell, and Jeremy T Smith

nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. Kisspeptin also appears to be under the circadian control, as evidenced by studies showing that increases in kisspeptin expression in the AVPV of the hypothalamus are synchronous with the LH surge during proestrus in

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S Babic, M Pokusa, V Danevova, S T Ding, and D Jezova

conditions, gene expression of oxytocin in the hypothalamus as well as the concentration of oxytocin in the peripheral circulation and in the brain is increased. Vasopressin is released particularly in response to stress stimuli with an osmotic component

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Campbell J L Harter, Georgia S Kavanagh, and Jeremy T Smith

testes, ovaries, pancreas and small intestine ( Kotani et al. 2001 , Muir et al. 2001 , Ohtaki et al. 2001 ). Significantly, kisspeptin was discovered and mapped in the brain, expressed in the rodent hypothalamus, specifically within neurons

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G Almeida-Pereira, T Vilhena-Franco, R Coletti, S Q Cognuck, H V P Silva, L L K Elias, and J Antunes-Rodrigues

lamina terminalis contained the OVLT, the MnPO and the SFO and the samples of the hypothalamus contained the bilateral PVN and the SON from each animal. The brain tissues were homogenized in extraction buffer (pH = 7.4) containing (in mM) 20 Tris

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Eva Baquedano, Julie A Chowen, Jesús Argente, and Laura M Frago

addition, as rats treated with GH or GHRP-6 showed increased levels of phosphorylated Akt in the hypothalamus, hippocampus and cerebellum, but not of ERKs1/2 ( Frago et al . 2002 ), and Akt is a central regulator of survival, growth and proliferation

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Cristina Velasco, Marta Librán-Pérez, Cristina Otero-Rodiño, Marcos A López-Patiño, Jesús M Míguez, José Miguel Cerdá-Reverter, and José L Soengas

, ultimately leading to decreased food intake ( Migrenne et al . 2007 , Blouet & Schwartz 2010 ). Our previous studies in fish have characterized the presence and function of fatty acid-sensing systems in the hypothalamus of rainbow trout ( Oncorh ynchus

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Mariana Rosolen Tavares, Simone Ferreira Lemes, Thais de Fante, Cristina Saenz de Miera, Isadora Carolina Betim Pavan, Rosangela Maria Neves Bezerra, Patricia Oliveira Prada, Marcio Alberto Torsoni, Carol Fuzeti Elias, and Fernando Moreira Simabuco

, osteoarthritis, and some types of cancer ( James et al. 2006 , Tremblay & Lachance 2017 ). Thus, there is a great demand for research involving metabolic processes related to the obesity onset. Hypothalamus is an important region of the central nervous system