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Farhana Naznin, Koji Toshinai, T M Zaved Waise, Cherl NamKoong, Abu Saleh Md Moin, Hideyuki Sakoda, and Masamitsu Nakazato

mice ( Briggs et al . 2010 ). However, the mechanism underlying this unresponsiveness remains to be demonstrated. Immune-cell-mediated tissue inflammation in the adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle plays a critical role in the development of

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You-Hua Xu, Chen-Lin Gao, Heng-Li Guo, Wen-Qian Zhang, Wei Huang, Shan-Shan Tang, Wen-Jun Gan, Yong Xu, Hua Zhou, and Quan Zhu

Introduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been recognized as an epidemic disease with low-grade chronic inflammation as its pivotal characteristic. Epidemiological studies show that inflammatory cytokines and LPS dramatically elevated

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Eun Soo Lee, Mi-Hye Kwon, Hong Min Kim, Nami Kim, You Mi Kim, Hyeon Soo Kim, Eun Young Lee, and Choon Hee Chung

glucotoxicity, lipotoxicity, inflammation and cellular apoptosis ( Serrano Rios 1998 ). Among these complications, DN is a leading cause of end-stage kidney diseases and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in diabetes. Under obesity

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Sun-O Ka, Mi-Young Song, Eun Ju Bae, and Byung-Hyun Park

Introduction Obesity is characterized by chronic low-grade tissue inflammation that contributes to the development of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes ( Hotamisligil 2006 ). Infiltration of immune cells into peripheral

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Jay W Porter, Joe L Rowles III, Justin A Fletcher, Terese M Zidon, Nathan C Winn, Leighton T McCabe, Young-Min Park, James W Perfield II, John P Thyfault, R Scott Rector, Jaume Padilla, and Victoria J Vieira-Potter

endocrine organ that is profoundly affected by exercise. Exercise lessens WAT inflammation and improves systemic metabolic health, even in the settings of obesity ( Vieira et al . 2009 a , Welly et al . 2016 ), although the mechanisms are not fully

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Rong Wan, Chao Zhu, Rui Guo, Lai Jin, Yunxin Liu, Li Li, Hao Zhang, and Shengnan Li

addition, clinical data have demonstrated that male hormones are independent factors contributing to the higher male susceptibility to cardiovascular diseases ( Ling et al . 2009 ). It is important to investigate the role of androgens in inflammation owing

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Aarti D Rohira, David M Lonard, and Bert W O’Malley

repair of damaged or diseased organs; they also play an important role in signaling to immune cells during inflammation ( Lingen 2001 ). Immune cells Immune cells are mediators of the host defense system and play a central role in detecting and

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Zhongyang Lu, Xiaoming Zhang, Yanchun Li, Junfei Jin, and Yan Huang

gram-negative bacteria, is involved in atherosclerosis. It was proposed that bacteria such as Chlamydia pneumonia and Porphyromonas gingivalis might promote atherosclerosis by activating TLR4 and TLR4-mediated inflammation via LPS. In recent years

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Rachel Botchlett, Shih-Lung Woo, Mengyang Liu, Ya Pei, Xin Guo, Honggui Li, and Chaodong Wu

Kumar et al. 2014 , Roseno et al. 2015 ). However, more imperative to health and metabolism is the well-documented association between long-term HFD and the generation of inflammation. For example, it is well established that feeding a saturated

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Gabriel Forn-Cuní, Monica Varela, Conrado M Fernández-Rodríguez, Antonio Figueras, and Beatriz Novoa

of liver inflammation, liver cell necrosis (hepatocyte ballooning), and liver fibrosis, which is also termed non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH is thought to be the main cause of human cryptogenic cirrhosis. Histologically, NASH is similar to