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Hiroto Kobayashi, Saori Yoshida, Ying-Jie Sun, Nobuyuki Shirasawa, and Akira Naito

& Armstrong 1995 ). Among liver disease, cirrhosis, pylemphraxis, and biliary atresia, there is an increase in the serum estrogen levels in males; however, the origin of serum estrogens is unknown. In recent years, Ueyama et al . (2002 , 2004 ) reported the

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Ling He, Shumei Meng, Emily L Germain-Lee, Sally Radovick, and Fredric E Wondisford

diabetic patients treated with metformin exhibit a reduction in cancer incidence ( Evans et al . 2005 , Libby et al . 2009 , Landman et al . 2010 ). The main effect of metformin is to suppress glucose production in the liver ( Hundal et al . 2002

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María E Díaz, Johanna G Miquet, Soledad P Rossi, Pablo E Irene, Ana I Sotelo, Mónica B Frungieri, Daniel Turyn, and Lorena González

indicates that GH concentration patterns regulate epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression in rodent liver. The EGFR, also known as ERBB1, is a plasma membrane glycoprotein which belongs to the ERBB family of receptor tyrosine kinases ( Burgess

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Elisabete A Forsberg, Ileana R Botusan, Jing Wang, Verena Peters, Ishrath Ansurudeen, Kerstin Brismar, and Sergiu Bogdan Catrina

enhancing or damping IGF activity. IGFBP1 is expressed in the liver, kidney and decidua ( Rajaram et al . 1997 ). The liver is the major source for the circulating IGFBP1 and its synthesis is centrally regulated by insulin that represses IGFBP1 at the

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Sandra Pereira, Anu Shah, I George Fantus, Jamie W Joseph, and Adria Giacca

characterized by oxidative stress at the tissue level. In the liver, it has been reported that the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonyl content are elevated ( Carmiel-Haggai et al . 2005 , Satapati et al . 2012

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Anjara Rabearivony, Huan Li, Shiyao Zhang, Siyu Chen, Xiaofei An, and Chang Liu

). Given the importance of clock machinery, almost all the central and peripheral organs/tissues, such as the liver, possess an intact and functional clock system. It has been demonstrated that the key genes involved in hepatic principal functions

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Sandra Pereira, Wen Qin Yu, María E Frigolet, Jacqueline L Beaudry, Yaniv Shpilberg, Edward Park, Cristina Dirlea, B L Grégoire Nyomba, Michael C Riddell, I George Fantus, and Adria Giacca

animals. At the end of the clamp, rats were anesthetized, the liver was freeze-clamped with pre-cooled aluminum tongs, and the soleus muscle was collected. Tissues were stored at −80 °C. The tissue determinations have a lower n than the glucose kinetics

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Aline Cordeiro, Luana Lopes Souza, Marcelo Einicker-Lamas, and Carmen Cabanelas Pazos-Moura

. 2000 ). The liver is the major site for cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism, and thyroid hormones play an important role in hepatic lipid homoeostasis ( Malik & Hodgson 2002 ). Cholesterol is an essential constituent of most biological membranes and

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Richard A Ehrhardt, Andreas Foskolos, Sarah L Giesy, Stephanie R Wesolowski, Christopher S Krumm, W Ronald Butler, Susan M Quirk, Matthew R Waldron, and Yves R Boisclair

. Specifically, the hypoinsulinemia of early lactation causes loss of the liver GH receptor and reduced hepatic IGF1 production ( Rhoads et al . 2004 , Wook Kim et al . 2004 ). As a consequence of the reduced IGF1 feedback, plasma GH increases, promoting

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Anita Boelen, Anne H van der Spek, Flavia Bloise, Emmely M de Vries, Olga V Surovtseva, Mieke van Beeren, Mariette T Ackermans, Joan Kwakkel, and Eric Fliers

-converting enzymes. Among the most important, thyroid hormone transporters are MCT8 and MCT10. MCT8 transports both T 4 and T 3 and is expressed in liver, muscle, kidney and in many brain areas ( Alkemade et al . 2005 , Heuer et al . 2005 ), whereas MCT10