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E. D. Watson, C. R. Stokes, and F. J. Bourne


The function of blood and uterine luminal neutrophils from ovariectomized mares treated with ovarian steroids was investigated 18 h after intrauterine infusion of 1 × 109 Streptococcus zooepidemicus. Random migration of blood neutrophils under agarose was reduced by treatment with progesterone compared with that of neutrophils from oestradiol-treated and control mares. In-vitro addition of progesterone to blood neutrophils from acyclic ponies also reduced migration. Uterine neutrophils did not migrate under agarose which was probably an effect of bacterial phagocytosis. Hormone treatment had little effect on phagocytosis of yeast blastospores by blood neutrophils. Phagocytosis by uterine neutrophils from oestradiol-treated and control mares was significantly better than that by blood neutrophils. In progesterone-treated mares, however, phagocytosis by uterine neutrophils was significantly lower than that in the other two treatment groups and was similar to that measured in blood neutrophils.

The results indicate a marked effect of progesterone in reducing both migration of blood neutrophils and phagocytosis by uterine neutrophils.

J. Endocr. (1987) 112, 443–448

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PG McTernan, MC Sheppard, and GR Williams

HL60 cells differentiate to monocytes or neutrophils in response to 1 alpha,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 (D3) and retinoids respectively. D3 and retinoid actions converge since their receptors (VDR, RAR) heterodimerise with a common partner, RXR, which also interacts with thyroid hormone (T3) receptors (T3R). HL60 cells were treated with combinations of D3 and retinoids to induce differentiation and to investigate whether increased VDR or RAR expression correlated with monocyte or neutrophil differentiation and whether altered receptor concentrations affected DNA-binding specificity. As assessed by Western blotting, VDR and RXR expression was unchanged in monocytes relative to controls but levels of RAR and T3R were reduced. In contrast, only VDR expression was reduced in neutrophils. T3 did not promote differentiation or influence its induction by D3 or retinoids and did not affect expression of any receptor. Gel mobility-shift analysis revealed that nuclear extracts from undifferentiated cells, monocytes and neutrophils interacted differently with VDRE-, RARE- and RXRE-binding sites. Monocyte nuclear protein/DNA complexes contain readily detectable VDR and RXR whereas neutrophil complexes contain RAR and RXR. Thus hormone-induced changes in receptor stoichiometry favour either VDR/RXR or RAR/RXR heterodimerisation and correlate with hormone-induced differentiation of HL60 cells to monocytes or neutrophils respectively.

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N Reinisch, B A Sitte, C M Kähler, and C J Wiedermann


Treatment of rats with human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) induced in the testes an inflammation-like reaction characterized by migration of leukocytes into the interstitial space. In order to find out whether hCG acts in a direct manner in this process, we tested peripheral human blood leukocyte attraction by hCG in vitro. Chemotaxis through cellulose nitrate to gradients of test substances was measured using a 48-well microchemotaxis chamber. Human CG was found to be a potent attractor of neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes in vitro in the picomolar concentration range. Checkerboard analyses revealed that the type of migration depends on positive concentration gradients of hCG. The chemoattractant nature of hCG is consistent with its having a role to play in regulation of tissue accumulation of these cells within the reproductive tract.

Journal of Endocrinology (1994) 142, 167–170

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X. Zhao, B. W. McBride, L. M. Trouten-Radford, and J. H. Burton


The biological potencies of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and two of its analogues were examined for hydrogen peroxide release by neutrophils and blastogenesis by mononuclear cells. The binding affinities of these peptides for bovine serum IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) and IGF-I receptors on bovine neutrophils and mononuclear cells were also investigated. Relative to control treatment containing no IGF-I, preincubation of neutrophils with 12·5 μg/l of IGF-I, des(1–3)IGF-I (an analogue of human IGF-I lacking the N-terminal tripeptide Gly-Pro-Glu) and long R3 IGF-I (an analogue of human IGF-I with arginine replacing glutamate at position 3 of human IGF-I and the N-terminal extension Met-Phe-Pro-Ala-Met-ProLeu-Ser-Ser-Leu-Phe-Val-Asn) increased the release of H2O2 by 65%, 64% and 32% respectively. However, the difference in stimulating the release of H2O2 between long R3 IGF-I and other two (IGF-I and des(1–3)IGF-I) was reduced at a dosage of 100 μg/l. In the absence or presence of 2·5% fetal calf serum (FCS), 100 μg/l of IGF-I, des(1–3)IGF-I but not long R3 IGF-I significantly stimulated thymidine incorporation into mononuclear cells. In addition, des(1–3)IGF-I was more potent than IGF-I in stimulating thymidine incorporation into mononuclear cells in the presence of 2·5% FCS. IGF-I displaced 125I-labelled IGF-I binding to serum IGFBPs with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of approximately 1·5 nmol/1, while des(1–3)IGF-I and long R3 IGF-I only inhibited binding by 20% and 6% respectively, even at a concentration of 35 nmol/l. Similar affinities for IGF-I receptors on neutrophils and mononuclear cells were shown for IGF-I and des(1–3)IGF-I. Conversely, much lower affinities for these receptors were demonstrated for long R3 IGF-I. These results suggest that the biological activities of IGF-I and its analogues in cells of the bovine immune system depend on their binding characteristics both to receptors and to binding proteins.

Journal of Endocrinology (1993) 139, 259–265

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Anne H van der Spek, Eric Fliers, and Anita Boelen

metabolism present in innate immune cells and the role and effects of intracellular TH metabolism in these cells. It focuses specifically on the phagocytic innate immune cells: neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells. Thyroid hormone production and

Open access

Helen L Jeanes, Caroline Tabor, Darcey Black, Antwan Ederveen, and Gillian A Gray

mice ( Gabel et al . 2005 ). Neutrophils invade the myocardium during reperfusion and are an important source of oxidant stress causing injury ( Reimer et al . 1989 ). In vivo , the inhibition of myocardial adhesion molecule expression by oestrogen

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Gordon Moody, Pedro J Beltran, Petia Mitchell, Elaina Cajulis, Young-Ah Chung, David Hwang, Richard Kendall, Robert Radinsky, Pinchas Cohen, and Frank J Calzone

neutrophils, platelets and erythrocytes In all experiments, 150 μl of blood were collected from anesthetized animals by retro-orbital bleeding using heparin-coated glass capillary tubes. Blood was collected into Microtainer tubes with EDTA and diluted 1:1 with

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Prabhakara R Nagareddy, Sunil K Noothi, Michelle C Flynn, and Andrew J Murphy

with CAD. Elevated leukocyte count has been correlated with cardiovascular disease since the 1920s ( Madjid et al . 2004 ). The myeloid compartment of the white blood cells (WBCs), namely, monocytes ( Choi et al . 2017 ), neutrophils ( Wheeler et

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G Şener, L Kabasakal, B M Atasoy, C Erzik, A Velioğlu-Öğünç, Ş Çetinel, G Contuk, N Gedik, and B Ç Yeğen

activity of the lung, liver, kidney and ileal tissues were observed, indicating tissue neutrophil infiltration (Fig. 4 ). Except for the ileum, this early neutrophil accumulation was not any more evident at 72 h of irradiation. On the other hand, PTU

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Natasha Singh, Bronwen Herbert, Gavin R Sooranna, Nicolas M Orsi, Lydia Edey, Tathagata Dasgupta, Suren R Sooranna, Steven M Yellon, and Mark R Johnson

infiltration of monocytes, neutrophils and macrophages ( Thomson et al . 1999 , Young et al . 2002 , Osman et al . 2003 ). All myometrial gene array studies have identified inflammation as a key component of labouring myometrium ( Bisits et al . 2005