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Local control of thyroid hormone action: role of type 2 deiodinase

Deiodinases: the balance of thyroid hormone

Graham R Williams and J H Duncan Bassett

thyroid hormones and TSH in a physiological inverse relationship that defines the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis set-point ( Bassett & Williams 2008 ). Figure 1 Negative feedback regulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis. The role of

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Mathis Grossmann

issue. Only a small proportion of these men will have classical hypogonadism due to recognisable hypothalamic–pituitary–testicular (HPT) axis pathology, an important diagnosis not to be missed. In contrast, the risk-benefit ratio of testosterone therapy

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Michael Muchow, Ioannis Bossis, and Tom E Porter

role in the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis in mammals. However, due to a lack of homologous antisera to TSH in birds and the only recent description of an anti-peptide antibody ( Iwasawa et al. 2002 ), the physiological role of TSH in the

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Juan C Solis-S, Patricia Villalobos, Aurea Orozco, Guadalupe Delgado, Andres Quintanar-Stephano, Pablo Garcia-Solis, Hebert L Hernandez-Montiel, Ludivina Robles-Osorio, and Carlos Valverde-R

in DW ad libitum for 7 days Disruption of TH-negative feedback on HPT axis: increased TSH and low TH. Iodide-depleted thyroid gland Hyperthyroid 15 Single dose (100 μg/100 g BW) of T 3 via i.p. 24 h before killing Inhibition of HPT axis by TH: low

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Maria H Warner and Geoffrey J Beckett

this rise is related to the severity of the illness and is critical for survival (Vermes & Beishuizen 2001). Changes within the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis also occur in illness and are typically associated with low levels of total

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J Fahrenkrug, B Georg, J Hannibal, and H L Jørgensen

Introduction There is growing evidence that endocrine body rhythms including the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis are regulated by the circadian timing system, which consists of the master pacemaker located in the hypothalamic

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F Wahab, M Shahab, and R Behr

. Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets 13 335 – 347 . ( doi:10.2174/1871530313666131211120723 ) Wahab F Atika B Huma T Shahab M 2014 Primate HPT axis response to the peripheral kisspeptin challenge under different time periods

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Jonathan J Nicholls, Mary Jane Brassill, Graham R Williams, and J H Duncan Bassett

subclinical hyperthyroidism and prolonged suppressive T 4 treatment. Thyroid hormone physiology The hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis Circulating thyroid hormone concentrations are regulated by the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis ( Fig. 1

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Camila Calvino, Luana L Souza, Ricardo H Costa-e-Sousa, Norma A S Almeida, Isis H Trevenzoli, and Carmen C Pazos-Moura

, Ahima & Antwi 2008 ). In addition, leptin modulates the activity of several neuroendocrine axes, including the hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis. Similar to leptin, thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for the maintenance of basal metabolism and

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J Patel, K Landers, H Li, R H Mortimer, and K Richard

endocrine feedback (the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis and thyroid hormone metabolism by liver and brain deiodinase enzymes (deiodinase type 2 (D2) and deiodinase type 3 (D3)) to ensure basal levels are sustained ( Zoeller et al . 2007