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Alpana Mathur, Vivek Kumar Pandey, and Poonam Kakkar

Background Type 2 diabetes (T2D), obesity and allied disorders are posing serious health problems that are reaching epidemic proportions worldwide ( Nanditha et al . 2016 ). Insulin resistance, a key feature of T2D and obesity, subdues the

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Jasleen Kaur and Elizabeth R Seaquist

understanding of the physiology of glucagon, its potential role in the causation of diabetes, and its synergistic effects with other gut hormones in regulating metabolism. In this review article, we aim to summarize the known effects of glucagon and its

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James E Bowe, Zara J Franklin, Astrid C Hauge-Evans, Aileen J King, Shanta J Persaud, and Peter M Jones

Introduction The incidence of diabetes mellitus, particularly obesity-related type 2 diabetes, is increasing at an alarming rate in the developed world, and this epidemic is driving numerous research programmes into the causes of, and new treatment

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Hikari Hirakida, Taiga Okumura, Ryosuke Fujita, Yoshiki Kuse, Takahiro Mizoguchi, Satoshi Inagaki, Shinsuke Nakamura, Masamitsu Shimazawa, and Hideaki Hara

Introduction Diabetes is a disease that causes chronic hyperglycemia by the impairment of insulin secretion or insulin resistance and is a risk factor for the development of arteriosclerosis and ischemic diseases. More than 423 million people

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Jennifer Chen and Jenny E Gunton

pancreatic islets. Although they consist of only 1–2% of the adult pancreas, islets are critical for regulating glucose homeostasis. The hormone insulin is secreted solely by islet β-cells. When blood glucose levels rise, insulin is released. Diabetes occurs

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Jessica R Mader, Zachary T Resch, Gary R McLean, Jakob H Mikkelsen, Claus Oxvig, Ronald J Marler, and Cheryl A Conover

development of nephropathy in an experimentally induced mouse model of type 2 diabetes. The latter was of particular interest based on a study by Swindell et al . (2010) looking at differential gene expression in WT vs Papp-A KO mice that highlighted the

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Robin Kristófi and Jan W Eriksson

Introduction Metformin is a biguanide drug that is widely prescribed as an oral antihyperglycaemic agent internationally and is recommended as the initial drug of choice for type 2 diabetes (T2D) according to recent joint European

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Brittany M Duggan, Daniel M Marko, Raveen Muzaffar, Darryl Y Chan, and Jonathan D Schertzer

, inflammatory bowel disease, peritonitis, multiple sclerosis, pulmonary fibrosis, and type 1 and type 2 diabetes (T1D, T2D) ( Patterson et al. 2014 ). Several of these agents have already been approved for use in several non-malignant conditions including

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Shiho Fujisaka, Yoshiyuki Watanabe, and Kazuyuki Tobe

contribute to insulin resistance ( Pedersen et al. 2016 ). The aromatic AAs tyrosine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan are correlated with diabetes risk ( Wang et al. 2011 , Chen et al. 2016 ). Bacteria harbor genes encoding mediators of aromatic AA

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S J Brandt, M Kleinert, M H Tschöp, and T D Müller

obesity are associated with a number of comorbidities, most importantly type 2 diabetes (T2DM), cardiovascular disease, hypertension, dyslipidemia and several kinds of cancer, predominantly gastrointestinal (GI). In 2015, around 4 million deaths were