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Anaies Nazarians-Armavil, Jennifer A Chalmers, Claire B Lee, Wenqing Ye, and Denise D Belsham

Introduction The hypothalamus is largely responsible for the integration of peripheral cues, such as hormones and nutrients, to direct appropriate physiological processes to maintain energy balance. Disruption in this equilibrium results in the

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Sjoerd D Joustra, Onno C Meijer, Charlotte A Heinen, Isabel M Mol, El Houari Laghmani, Rozemarijn M A Sengers, Gabriela Carreno, A S Paul van Trotsenburg, Nienke R Biermasz, Daniel J Bernard, Jan M Wit, Wilma Oostdijk, Ans M M van Pelt, Geert Hamer, and Gerry T M Wagenaar

dehydration in a graded alcohol series and xylenes. Real-time qPCR Relative Igsf1 mRNA expression was assessed in various organs (four to six animals, both sexes), as well as punches from choroid plexus (lateral ventricle of the brain), hypothalamus

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Jie Miao, Yacir Benomar, Sarah Al Rifai, Ghislaine Poizat, Laure Riffault, Delphine Crépin, and Mohammed Taouis

manually dissected and immediately frozen into liquid nitrogen and conserved at −80°C. The quality of the dissection was verified by the measurement of POMC and NPY expression known to be specific to the hypothalamus. All procedures were conducted according

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Gisela Helfer and Qing-Feng Wu

of the hippocampus as well as ependymal cells and tanycytes lining the third ventricle of the hypothalamus ( Guo et al . 2012 , Helfer et al . 2016 ). CMKLR1 is a G i/o -protein-coupled receptor that signals through mitogen-activated protein kinase

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Leila Arbabi, Qun Li, Belinda A Henry, and Iain J Clarke

-4 reduced expression of the kisspeptin (Kiss1) ( KISS1 ) and Kiss1 receptor ( GPR54 ) genes in the hypothalamus, with little effect of GLP-1; GLP-1 had a transient stimulatory effect on KISS1 expression only ( Outeiriño-Iglesias et al. 2015

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P G Murray, C E Higham, and P E Clayton

‘releasing’ factors originated from neurones in the hypothalamus and entered into the portal blood. With regard to the growth hormone (GH) axis, work in the 1960s showed that intra-carotid injection of stalk-median eminence extracts into rats and guinea pigs

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Margaret B Allison and Martin G Myers Jr

the brain, especially the hypothalamus, where its action is integrated with that of other adipokines, gastrokines, and other signals to coordinate energy homeostasis ( Friedman & Halaas 1998 , Bates & Myers 2003 , Myers et al . 2009 , Ring

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J T Smith, A Roseweir, M Millar, I J Clarke, and R P Millar

1995 The role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the control of LH secretion in the ewe with respect to season, NPY receptor subtype and the site of action in the hypothalamus . European Journal of Endocrinology 147 565 – 579 . (

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Ulrika Bergström, Charlotte Lindfors, Marie Svedberg, Jeanette E Johansen, Jenny Häggkvist, Martin Schalling, Rolf Wibom, Abram Katz, and Ida A K Nilsson

Introduction Neuronal networks crucial for the regulation of food intake, i.e. satiety and hunger, are located mainly in the hypothalamus. In particular, two populations of neurons in the mediobasal part of the hypothalamus, the arcuate

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Z Zhang, P H Bisschop, E Foppen, H C van Beeren, A Kalsbeek, A Boelen, and E Fliers

-known direct effects of TH at the tissue level, some of its metabolic effects are mediated indirectly through specific neuronal targets within the hypothalamus. In particular, this has been shown in rats for hepatic glucose metabolism, brown adipose tissue (BAT