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Oliver C Watkins, Mohammed Omedul Islam, Preben Selvam, Reshma Appukuttan Pillai, Amaury Cazenave-Gassiot, Anne K Bendt, Neerja Karnani, Keith M Godfrey, Rohan M Lewis, Markus R Wenk, and Shiao-Yng Chan

with pregnancy disorders such as gestational diabetes (GDM) ( Crawford et al. 2015 , D’Anna & Santamaria 2018 ), pre-eclampsia ( D’Oria et al. 2017 ), intrauterine growth restriction ( Dessì & Fanos 2013 ) and fetal neural tube defects ( Copp

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Christopher M Mulligan and Jacob E Friedman

during pregnancy and their impact on the microbiota of both mother and infant, including their links to early gut colonization and innate immunity in the infants that drive an increased risk for common metabolic diseases. Figure 1 Influential

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Tessa J Roseboom

have shown that offspring of mothers exposed to a low protein diet in pregnancy have reduced beta cell mass and impaired beta cell function ( Zambrano et al . 2006 ). This suggests that the limited supply of nutrients has decreased the rates of

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Ankana Ganguly, Jennifer A Tamblyn, Alexandra Shattock, Annsha Joseph, Dean P Larner, Carl Jenkinson, Janesh Gupta, Stephane R Gross, and Martin Hewison

transport. Circulating levels of 1,25D ( Kumar et al. 1979 ) and DBP ( Jorgensen et al. 2004 ) are increased during early pregnancy but the precise function of DBP in the placenta is unclear and may involve known vitamin D-independent functions of DBP

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Anthony M Belenchia, Sarah A Johnson, Mark R Ellersieck, Cheryl S Rosenfeld, and Catherine A Peterson

/cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations, maternal vitamin D status is considered an excellent indicator of internal fetal vitamin D status ( Novakovic et al . 2012 ). Reports on human pregnancies demonstrate an association between maternal

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C J Corbin, E L Legacki, B A Ball, K E Scoggin, S D Stanley, and A J Conley

play a role in pregnancy and parturition in some species ( Mahendroo & Russell 1999 , Scholtz et al . 2014 ). These isozymes are expressed in various male reproductive tissues including the epididymis ( Robaire et al . 1977 ), where they reduce

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David R Grattan

hyperprolactinemia during lactation, and thereby promote the milk production that is essential to this state, there is an apparent loss of sensitivity of the short-loop feedback system during late pregnancy and lactation ( Grattan et al . 2008 ). This is a

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Antonio Gázquez, Francisca Rodríguez, María Sánchez-Campillo, Lidia E Martínez-Gascón, Marino B Arnao, Pedro Saura-Garre, María D Albaladejo-Otón, and Elvira Larqué

is affected by hyperglycaemia in pregnancy, most of those due to GDM ( International Diabetes Federation 2017 ). GDM is associated with neonatal adverse outcomes such as large for gestational age infants and increased risk of obesity and

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Michael E Symonds, Peter Aldiss, Neele Dellschaft, James Law, Hernan P Fainberg, Mark Pope, Harold Sacks, and Helen Budge

purchase of processed foods compared with the rest of Europe ( Monteiro et al . 2018 ). Maternal obesity during pregnancy can directly influence infant size and metabolic characteristics from conception onward, is one of the main predicting factors of

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Kok Lim Kua, Shanming Hu, Chunlin Wang, Jianrong Yao, Diana Dang, Alexander B Sawatzke, Jeffrey L Segar, Kai Wang, and Andrew W Norris

Introduction Offspring born from pregnancy complicated by diabetes have a lifelong increased risk of insulin resistance. In humans, such offspring have a 4- to 8-fold higher risk, beyond genetic risk, to develop type 2 diabetes, metabolic