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Ismael González-García, Pablo B Martínez de Morentin, Ánxela Estévez-Salguero, Cristina Contreras, Amparo Romero-Picó, Johan Fernø, Rubén Nogueiras, Carlos Diéguez, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Sulay Tovar, and Miguel López

level, estrogen receptor alpha and beta (ERα and ERβ) are expressed in several hypothalamic nuclei with key roles in the regulation of energy balance, such as the arcuate (ARC), paraventricular (PVH) and ventromedial (VMH) ( Simerly et al. 1990

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Campbell J L Harter, Georgia S Kavanagh, and Jeremy T Smith

. 2017 ) providing the strongest evidence for ARC kisspeptin neurons as the hypothalamic GnRH pulse generator. Figure 1 The potential function of kisspeptin neurons in mediating the relationship between energy balance and reproduction. Kisspeptin

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Jiannan Zhang, Xin Li, Yawei Zhou, Lin Cui, Jing Li, Chenlei Wu, Yiping Wan, Juan Li, and Yajun Wang

function and energy balance, through interaction with 5 melanocortin receptors (MCR), namely MC1R, MC2R (also called ACTHR), MC3R, MC4R and MC5R respectively ( Chhajlani & Wikberg 1992 , Mountjoy et al . 1992 , Yaswen et al . 1999 , Cone 2006 ). All

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Russell T Turner, Adam J Branscum, Carmen P Wong, Urszula T Iwaniec, and Emily Morey-Holton

gravity). If a gravitostat acts as a physiological regulator of energy balance by sensing changes in resting weight, weightlessness during spaceflight and on lower limbs during hindlimb unloading should result in increased weight and centrifugation at >1 G

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K Eerola, S Virtanen, L Vähätalo, L Ailanen, M Cai, V Hruby, M Savontaus, and E Savontaus

Introduction The melanocortin neuropeptide system is essential for the regulation of body weight (BW) and energy balance as evidenced by genetic disruptions of the melanocortin pathways leading to obesity in both humans and rodents ( Fan et

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Christophe Breton

-Twinn & Ozanne 2006 ). This concept states that an adverse perinatal environment programmes or imprints the development of several tissues. It may then permanently determine physiological responses and ultimately produce energy balance dysfunction and diseases

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David A Bechtold and Simon M Luckman

et al. 2000 , Matsumoto et al. 2000 , Samson et al. 2003 ). A number of observations by our group and others strongly implicate PrRP in the homeostatic regulation of feeding and energy balance. In the rat brain, PrRP mRNA is down

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Jeffrey Friedman

Fidahusein N Denton D Friedman JM 1997 Physiological response to long-term peripheral and central leptin infusion in lean and obese mice . PNAS 94 8878 – 8883 . ( doi:10.1073/pnas.94.16.8878 ) Hervey GR 1969 Regulation of energy balance

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Noelia Martínez-Sánchez, José M Moreno-Navarrete, Cristina Contreras, Eva Rial-Pensado, Johan Fernø, Rubén Nogueiras, Carlos Diéguez, José-Manuel Fernández-Real, and Miguel López

Introduction Thyroid hormones (THs; 3,3′,5,5′ tetraiodothyroxyne or T 4 and 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine or T 3 ) exert important biological actions, not only modulating the development and growth but also regulating metabolism and energy balance

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Jacob C Garza, Chung Sub Kim, Jing Liu, Wei Zhang, and Xin-Yun Lu

Introduction Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) in the central nervous system (CNS) plays a critical role in the control of energy balance. Activation of MC4R by α-MSH, a derivative of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), decreases food intake and increases