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Elizabeth Gray, Dany Muller, Paul E Squires, Henry Asare-Anane, Guo-Cai Huang, Stephanie Amiel, Shanta J Persaud, and Peter M Jones

activation by Ca 2+ and other divalent cations that are co-released with insulin may act as a local regulator of insulin secretion ( Squires et al. 2000 ). Those studies used supra-physiological levels of [Ca 2+ ] o to activate CaR but, given the

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Aoife Kiely, Aisling Robinson, Neville H McClenaghan, Peter R Flatt, and Philip Newsholme

determined the effects of LPS on β-cell insulin secretion and content, viability, metabolism and insulin signal transduction pathways. While glucose and alanine are recognised as potent insulinotropic nutrients ( Newsholme et al . 2006 , McClenaghan 2007

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Tatiane Aparecida Ribeiro, Audrei Pavanello, Laize Peron Tófolo, Júlio Cezar de Oliveira, Ana Maria Praxedes de Moraes, Claudinéia Conationi da Silva Franco, Kelly Valério Prates, Isabela Peixoto Martins, Kesia Palma-Rigo, Rosana Torrezan, Erica Yeo, Rodrigo Mello Gomes, Flávio Andrade Francisco, Paulo Cezar de Freitas Mathias, and Ananda Malta

al. 2018 ). Studies have shown that soy isoflavones exhibit anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects ( Kawser Hossain et al. 2016 ), by improving insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, and reduction of body weight in both human and

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Rebecca L Hull, Joshua R Willard, Matthias D Struck, Breanne M Barrow, Gurkirat S Brar, Sofianos Andrikopoulos, and Sakeneh Zraika

reduced insulin secretion and impaired glucose tolerance in C57BL/6J mice ( Toye et al . 2005 , Freeman et al . 2006 a , b , Aston-Mourney et al . 2007 , Fergusson et al . 2014 ). In contrast, C57BL/6N mice do not carry this mutation. Thus, genetic

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Bethany P Cummings, Andrew A Bremer, Timothy J Kieffer, David D'Alessio, and Peter J Havel

hyperinsulinemia ( Karlsson et al . 2001 , Nicod et al . 2003 ), which is supported by both clinical studies in humans and studies in rodents demonstrating marked increases in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion during short-term glucocorticoid treatment

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Kira G Slepchenko, Kathryn L Corbin, and Craig S Nunemaker

islet function is known as glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). For this test, islets are stimulated with two glucose concentrations, one that is relatively low (typically 1–3 mM) and one that is high (typically 10–28 mM). These stimulations are

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Anthony Raffo, Kolbe Hancock, Teresa Polito, Yuli Xie, Gordon Andan, Piotr Witkowski, Mark Hardy, Pasquale Barba, Caterina Ferrara, Antonella Maffei, Matthew Freeby, Robin Goland, Rudolph L Leibel, Ian R Sweet, and Paul E Harris

Introduction d -Glucose, with the synergistic effects of certain amino acids, is the major physiological stimulus for insulin secretion (reviewed in Henquin (2000 )). The net insulin production and glucose homeostasis, however, are regulated by a

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Anthony J Weinhaus, Laurence E Stout, Nicholas V Bhagroo, T Clark Brelje, and Robert L Sorenson

et al. 1992 , Sorenson & Brelje 1997 ). The most important changes are lowering of the threshold for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and expansion of islet mass ( Parsons et al. 1992 ). The primary factorsresponsible for these adaptive changes

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T Clark Brelje, Nicholas V Bhagroo, Laurence E Stout, and Robert L Sorenson

Introduction During pregnancy, there is an increased need for insulin to accommodate the developing insulin resistance and growing fetal compartment. The pancreatic islets of Langerhans meet this demand by increasing both insulin secretion and islet

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Weiwei Xu, Jamie Morford, and Franck Mauvais-Jarvis

dysfunction is necessary for hyperglycemia to develop, the role of testosterone in β cell function and insulin secretion is poorly understood. This review discusses how testosterone acts on the AR in the insulin-producing β cells of the pancreas in a sexually