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Marion Régnier, Matthias Van Hul, Claude Knauf, and Patrice D Cani

Introduction Obesity is linked with many cardiometabolic risk factors, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although lowering body weight is effective for alleviating several of these

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Hong-Yo Kang

current knowledge of the metabolic and vascular actions of testosterone in these disorders – specifically, how testosterone deficiency contributes to insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes ( Kelly & Jones 2013 a ), and cardiovascular

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Frank H Bloomfield

Preterm birth and the later risk of diabetes Preterm birth (birth before 37 completed weeks’ gestation) occurs in 11.1% of births globally, with most countries showing increasing rates over the past two decades ( Blencowe et al . 2012 ). The

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Andrew W Norris, Katie Larson Ode, Lina Merjaneh, Srinath Sanda, Yaling Yi, Xingshen Sun, John F Engelhardt, and Rebecca L Hull

Example Disease Pancreatic insufficiency risk (Ahmed et al . 2003) Diabetes risk (Adler et al . 2008) I Failed synthesis G542X Severe High High II Failed protein processing F508del Severe High High III

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Craig S Nunemaker, H Grace Chung, Gretchen M Verrilli, Kathryn L Corbin, Aditi Upadhye, and Poonam R Sharma

Introduction Chronic low-grade inflammation is increasingly considered as a contributing factor to many metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D). Obesity leads to excess fatty acids and lipids in the body, which have toxic and damaging

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Mathis Grossmann

Introduction: significance of the clinical problem Around 50% of ageing, obese men presenting to the diabetes clinic have lowered testosterone levels relative to reference ranges based on healthy young men ( Grossmann 2011 ). Many have symptoms

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Henrik Ortsäter, Nina Grankvist, Richard E Honkanen, and Åke Sjöholm

Type 2 diabetes: a growing epidemic Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a syndrome characterized by disordered metabolism, resulting in hyperglycemia. The most common and dreaded long-term complication of diabetes is cardiovascular disease, which accounts for

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Weiwei Xu, Jamie Morford, and Franck Mauvais-Jarvis

particularly surprising, as observational studies have implicated low testosterone levels in both the development of insulin resistance and the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia and diabetes in men, and hyperglycemia requires β cell dysfunction to develop. In the

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Antonio Gázquez, Francisca Rodríguez, María Sánchez-Campillo, Lidia E Martínez-Gascón, Marino B Arnao, Pedro Saura-Garre, María D Albaladejo-Otón, and Elvira Larqué

Introduction Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) prevalence is increasing in women due to the obesity epidemic; however, the ideal management of GDM remains controversial ( Mack & Tomich 2017 ). It is estimated that one out of six live births

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Libor Vítek and Martin Haluzík

-acting hormones ( Potthoff et al . 2012 ). Interestingly, when administered in pharmacological doses, both FGF19 and FGF21 have insulin-sensitizing and hypolipidemic effects in rodent models of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) ( Tomlinson et al . 2002