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Jackson Nteeba, Kaiyu Kubota, Wenfang Wang, Hao Zhu, Jay L Vivian, Guoli Dai, and Michael J Soares

Introduction Glucose intolerance during pregnancy, known as gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), is one of the most common pregnancy complications and affects nearly 17% of all pregnancies globally and ~7% in the United States ( Newbern

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Julia Schultz, Rica Waterstradt, Tobias Kantowski, Annekatrin Rickmann, Florian Reinhardt, Vladimir Sharoyko, Hindrik Mulder, Markus Tiedge, and Simone Baltrusch

( Zhu et al . 2004 ). Both mitochondrial fission-to-fusion imbalance and a reduced overall level of mitochondrial dynamics have been linked with decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells ( Deng et al . 2004 , Anello et

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Carmen Sanz, Isabel Roncero, Patricia Vázquez, M Angeles Navas, and Enrique Blázquez

Introduction Glucokinase (GK) is a type IV isoenzyme that belongs to the family of hexokinases (ATP: d -hexose 6-phosphotransferase; EC and catalyzes the formation of glucose 6 phosphate in eukaryotic cells. This

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Haijiang Wu, Xinna Deng, Yonghong Shi, Ye Su, Jinying Wei, and Huijun Duan

respiration, gluconeogenesis and glucose transport, glycogenolysis, fatty acid oxidation, peroxisomal remodeling, muscle fiber-type switching, and oxidative phosphorylation ( Corona & Duchen 2015 ). As such, PGC-1α is a very attractive target for antidiabetic

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Martin Blixt, Bo Niklasson, and Stellan Sandler

Introduction It has been postulated that an increased glucose load in vivo on islet β-cells may participate in disease progression in type 1 and type 2 diabetes ( Weir et al . 1986 , 2009 , Rossetti et al . 1990 , Wilkin 2001 , Chang

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Isabel C Greenman, Edith Gomez, Claire E J Moore, and Terence P Herbert

Introduction The pancreatic β-cell rapidly releases insulin in response to nutrients, such as amino acids or glucose ( Campbell et al. 1982 ). To ensure the immediate replenishment of insulin within the β-cell, there is a rapid

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Min Joo Kim, Se Hee Min, Seon Young Shin, Mi Na Kim, Hakmo Lee, Jin Young Jang, Sun-Whe Kim, Kyong Soo Park, and Hye Seung Jung

, they were reported to be slightly glucose intolerant ( Harding et al . 2001 ); however, Wang and coworkers found that Perk +/− mice exhibited enhanced insulin secretion during neonatal and juvenile development, resulting in a transient reduction in

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Melissa A Davis, Leticia E Camacho, Alexander L Pendleton, Andrew T Antolic, Rosa I Luna-Ramirez, Amy C Kelly, Nathan R Steffens, Miranda J Anderson, and Sean W Limesand

been tested in normal sheep fetuses to evaluate adrenergic inhibition of insulin secretion and insulin action on glucose clearance ( Bassett & Hanson 1998 , Bassett & Hanson 2000 , Chen et al. 2014 , Davis et al. 2020 ). In these experimental

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Greg M Kowalski, Michael J Kraakman, Shaun A Mason, Andrew J Murphy, and Clinton R Bruce

mouse is one of, if not the most commonly used model of metabolic disease and prediabetes as it rapidly and robustly develops obesity, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance ( Surwit et al . 1988 , 1991 , Winzell & Ahren 2004 , Turner et al

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Brit H Boehmer, Peter R Baker II, Laura D Brown, Stephanie R Wesolowski, and Paul J Rozance

-mediated hypothesis posits that nutrient-stimulated insulin release depends on the capacity of nutrients to be metabolized by the β-cell as an energy source. In the adult islet, leucine increases its own oxidative metabolism. Leucine also stimulates glucose metabolism