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Jaroslav Kuneš, Veronika Pražienková, Andrea Popelová, Barbora Mikulášková, Jana Zemenová, and Lenka Maletínská

al . 2000 ). The suggestion that PrRP may act as a homeostatic regulator of food intake was supported by the fact that PrRP mRNA is reduced in states of negative energy balance similarly to other anorexigenic peptides such as melanocyte

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Alia H Sukkar, Aaron M Lett, Gary Frost, and Edward S Chambers

estimated that obesity can develop from a minor habitual positive energy balance (~50 kcal/day) ( Hill et al. 2003 ). Theoretically, interventions to prevent this small positive energy balance, and thus incremental weight gain, need only promote a

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Monisha Rajasekaran, Ok-Joo Sul, Eun-Kyung Choi, Ji-Eun Kim, Jae-Hee Suh, and Hye-Seon Choi

conditions. (B) Fat mass in WT ( n  = 10) and Ccl2 KO ( n  = 9) mice at 21 weeks. (C) Energy balance between WT ( n  = 8) and Ccl2 KO ( n  = 7) female mice. Mice at 22 weeks were examined in a metabolic cage over a 2-day period to measure energy

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PJ Morgan, AW Ross, JG Mercer, and P Barrett

The photoperiodic mammal undergoes quite remarkable changes in physiology as part of its natural adaptations to seasonal fluctuations in the environment. Changes in energy balance and body weight are among these adaptations. In some seasonal mammals, such as the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus), these changes in body weight have been explored in detail, and there is evidence for tightly controlled systems of energy balance that are coordinated by photoperiod acting via the temporal pattern of melatonin secretion from the pineal gland. The pathways and systems involved appear to be quite distinct from the hypothalamic pathways identified to regulate energy balance in studies of both mice and rats thus far. Instead it appears that in the Siberian hamster a tightly regulated system under the control of photoperiod is able to reset the tone of the systems involved in energy balance regulation. Understanding how photoperiod and melatonin act within the hypothalamus to regulate energy balance offers potentially fundamental and important new insights into the control of energy balance. This review describes the current state of our knowledge.

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C García-Luna, P Soberanes-Chávez, and P de Gortari

lipid and glucose metabolism improves in comparison with HFD-fed animals during the resting phase ( Hatori et al. 2012 , Tsai et al. 2013 ), showing that feeding time is relevant to maintain an adequate energy balance. Expression and/or release of

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Marcela Oliveira, Diego M Assis, Thaysa Paschoalin, Antonio Miranda, Eliane B Ribeiro, Maria A Juliano, Dieter Brömme, Marcelo Augusto Christoffolete, Nilana M T Barros, and Adriana K Carmona

efficiency of this enzyme in inactivating the functional activity of leptin. Enzymatic activities of cathepsins have not been characterized in obesity. However, the cathepsin S gene expression is described to be more influenced by changes in energy balance

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Eric D Bruder, Lauren Jacobson, and Hershel Raff

hormones have complex interactions ultimately controlling food intake, growth, development, and energy balance in the neonate and adult ( Meier & Gressner 2004 ). Of particular interest is the role that these hormones play in the neonatal adaptation to

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Andrea Stojakovic, Enma P Espinosa, Osman T Farhad, and Kabirullah Lutfy

system (CNS) implicated in the control of reward drive and mood to regulate appetite and control energy balance ( Sam et al . 2012 , Murray et al . 2014 ). The hypothalamus along with the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) in the brain stem, are the

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Nigel Irwin, Pamela Frizelle, Finbarr P M O'Harte, and Peter R Flatt

Introduction Cholecystokinin (CCK) is considered to be an important hormone in terms of biological effects on food intake and overall energy balance ( Rehfeld 2011 ). CCK was first isolated from porcine duodenal mucosa as a 33 amino acid intestinal

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Manuel D Gahete, David Rincón-Fernández, Alicia Villa-Osaba, Daniel Hormaechea-Agulla, Alejandro Ibáñez-Costa, Antonio J Martínez-Fuentes, Francisco Gracia-Navarro, Justo P Castaño, and Raúl M Luque

-paracrine regulation of human adrenal growth ( Tortorella et al . 2003 ), while it might exert an indirect role, via ACTH release, on glucocorticoid secretion. Nonendocrine actions Regulation of energy balance, appetite, and body temperature AG promotes a positive