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L Bai, G Meredith, and B E Tuch

Introduction Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a peptide secreted from the gut in response to food. It acts directly on β cells, enhancing the effect of glucose in stimulating insulin secretion from these cells. When administered to

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Hongbin Liu, Anthony E Dear, Lotte B Knudsen, and Richard W Simpson

protected from the development of biochemical abnormalities associated with endothelial cell dysfunction and development of atherosclerosis ( Eitzman et al . 2000 , Mao et al . 2004 ). Liraglutide, an acylated glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue, has

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Shin-ya Ueda, Takahiro Yoshikawa, Yoshihiro Katsura, Tatsuya Usui, and Shigeo Fujimoto

number of gastrointestinal hormones, such as peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 or GCG as listed in the HUGO Database; Huda et al . 2006 , Näslund & Hellström 2007 , Wren & Bloom 2007 ). PYY is recognized as a satiety factor

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Bo Ahrén, Maria Sörhede Winzell, and Giovanni Pacini

glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP; Vilsboll & Holst 2004 , Drucker 2006 ). The effect is, however, also partially achieved by autonomic nerves activated by oral glucose. Thus, cholinergic nerves

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Benjamin J Lamont and Sofianos Andrikopoulos

Introduction The incretins glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) act via specific G-protein-coupled receptors to potentiate insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells in a glucose-dependent manner

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Patricia Vázquez, Isabel Roncero, Enrique Blázquez, and Elvira Alvarez

facilitate the action of these proteins involved in the signalling process ( Pawson & Scott 1997 ). The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor is a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor subfamily ( Dillon et al. 1993 , Thorens 1993 , Thorens

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Patrice D Cani, Catherine A Daubioul, Brigitte Reusens, Claude Remacle, Grégory Catillon, and Nathalie M Delzenne

( Reimer & McBurney 1996 , Cani et al. 2004 ). In the intestine, the post-translational modification of the proglucagon gene by prohormone convertase 1 (PC1) leads to the production of glucagon-like peptide-1(7–36) amide (GLP-1(7–36) amide) which, among

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Bernard Khoo and Tricia Mei-Mei Tan

regain ( King et al. 2019 ). As a result, there is still an unmet need for other approaches to the treatment of obesity and associated T2D. The gut hormones, led by GLP-1, have emerged over the past few years as a potential answer to this need. This

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Catia Martins, Linda M Morgan, Stephen R Bloom, and M Denise Robertson

), peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) ( Blundell 1991 , King et al. 1997 b ). These metabolic and endocrine signals are then received and processed by specific areas in the hypothalamus and brainstem

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Sehee Kim, Minho Moon, and Seungjoon Park

pharmacological intervention of MMP-3 and microglial activation could be considered as plausible candidates for neuroprotective agents in PD. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an endogenous 30-amino acid gut–brain peptide hormone, is synthesized from proglucagon