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Taeko Nishiwaki-Ohkawa and Takashi Yoshimura

hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) secreted from the hypothalamus induces the pars distalis of the anterior pituitary gland to release thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which in turn stimulates the thyroid gland to

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R G Ahmed

2002 The hypothalamo-pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis: a target of nonpersistent ortho-substituted PCB congeners . Toxicological Sciences 65 52 – 61 . ( doi:10.1093/toxsci/65.1.52 ) Kidani T Kamei S Miyawaki J Aizawa J Sakayama K Masuno H

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Stefan Groeneweg, Robin P Peeters, Theo J Visser, and W Edward Visser

-Gomez et al. 2004 ). Effects of TA 3 on the hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis The first recognized effect of TA 3 was the reduction of goiter in hypothyroid rats ( Pitt-Rivers 1953 ). In line, TA 3 effectively restores most clinical and

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Francisco J Arjona, Luis Vargas-Chacoff, María P Martín del Río, Gert Flik, Juan M Mancera, and Peter H M Klaren

Bernier NJ Van der Kraak G Farrell AP Brauner CJ . New York, NY : Academic Press . Blanton ML Specker JL 2007 The hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis in fish and its role in fish development and reproduction . Critical Reviews in

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Anita Boelen, Anne H van der Spek, Flavia Bloise, Emmely M de Vries, Olga V Surovtseva, Mieke van Beeren, Mariette T Ackermans, Joan Kwakkel, and Eric Fliers

4 concentrations accompanied by a downregulation of the central HPT axis ( Boelen et al . 2011 ). Materials and methods Animal experiments We used three NTIS models to study liver and muscle thyroid hormone metabolism: acute

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Local impact of thyroid hormone inactivation

Deiodinases: the balance of thyroid hormone

Monica Dentice and Domenico Salvatore

of the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis. Interestingly, the abnormalities of the HPT resemble those observed in children born to mothers affected by hyperthyroidism during pregnancy ( Dussault et al . 1982 , Kempers et al . 2003

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Kristien Vandenborne, Simon A Roelens, Veerle M Darras, Eduard R Kühn, and Serge Van der Geyten

( Jackson et al. 1985 , Lechan et al. 1986 ). Results of immunocytochemical studies in hypothyroid rats suggested that only the TRH cells in the parvocellular portion of the PVN are involved in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary–thyroid (HPT

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María F Andreoli, Jose Donato Jr, Isin Cakir, and Mario Perello

. The effects of leptin on energy expenditure are mediated by both the autonomic nervous system and neuroendocrine hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis ( Pandit et al. 2017 ). Leptin upregulates the activity of the sympathetic nervous system

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J Kwakkel, O Chassande, H C van Beeren, W M Wiersinga, and A Boelen

binding of thyroid hormone to thyroid hormone-binding proteins are involved in the early decrease in T 3 and T 4 after LPS administration, whereas the liver D1 decrease and downregulation of the HPT axis might be involved later in time. Acknowledgements

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Pierre Hofstee, Janelle James-McAlpine, Daniel R McKeating, Jessica J Vanderlelie, James S M Cuffe, and Anthony V Perkins

thyroiditis and definitive hypothyroidism ( Drutel et al. 2013 ); however, this may not be relevant to iodine-deficient patients ( Mao et al. 2016 ). The human HPT axis maintains a physiologically inverse relationship between TSH and thyroid hormones