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Felipe de Oliveira Franco, Magno Alves Lopes, Felipe dos Santos Henriques, Rodrigo Xavier das Neves, Cesário Bianchi Filho, and Miguel Luiz Batista Jr

was similar ( Table 1 ). To evaluate cell turnover, we measured the mRNA levels of Pref1 (pre-adipocyte marker) because its expression is linked to adipogenesis inhibition ( O’Connell et al . 2011 ) and the mRNA levels of Adiponectin , which have

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Lili Guo, Penghua Fang, Mei Yu, Mingyi Shi, Ping Bo, and Zhenwen Zhang

). Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and adiponectin ELISA kits were obtained from Uscn Life Science (Wuhan, China). Ala6–25Cys (SSPFPPRPTRAGRETQLLRSC) were custom synthesized by GL Biochem (Shanghai, China). Animals and i.c.v. injection All animal procedures

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Rengasamy Palanivel, Vivian Vu, Min Park, Xiangping Fang, and Gary Sweeney

, Karmazyn et al . 2007 ). These include factors such as leptin, adiponectin, and TNF. It is also of interest to note that many of these factors have now been shown to be produced by the heart itself ( Purdham et al . 2004 , Pineiro et al . 2005 , Guo

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Clare M Reynolds and Mark H Vickers

et al. 1994 , Ahima et al. 2000 ) led to profound changes in the field of metabolic physiology. Following the characterisation of leptin in 1994, a large number of adipokines have now been characterised including adiponectin, apelin, visfatin and

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Xiwen Xiong, Cuicui Zhang, Yang Zhang, Rui Fan, Xinlai Qian, and X Charlie Dong

key regulator of energy metabolism by secreting a diverse range of adipokines, such as leptin and adiponectin ( Galic et al. 2010 ). Therefore, adipose tissue is considered as highly important for systemic metabolic homeostasis. The sirtuin

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R G Ahmed

been shown to disrupt adiponectin ( Mullerova et al . 2008 ), leptin ( Nieminen et al . 2000 ), tumor necrosis factor (TNFα; Arsenescu et al . 2008 ), and insulin ( Everett et al . 2011 ) concentrations, body weight, energy expenditure and fat

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Gulizar Issa Ameen and Silvia Mora

that help regulate biological functions in other cells and organs. Some of these proteins like adiponectin increase insulin sensitivity in peripheral organs, some arepro-inflammatory such as IL6 or TNFa and inhibit insulin action and others like leptin

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Bernard Beck and Sébastien Richy

adiponectin ( Havel 2004 , Kadowaki & Yamauchi 2005 ). It also modulates gastric hormones involved in feeding regulation like ghrelin ( Beck et al . 2002 , Erdmann et al . 2003 , Greenman et al . 2004 , Moesgaard et al . 2004 , Sanchez et al . 2004

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M S Fernandes, V Pierron, D Michalovich, S Astle, S Thornton, H Peltoketo, E W-F Lam, B Gellersen, I Huhtaniemi, J Allen, and J J Brosens

because several of its members are steroid or adiponectin (AdipoQ) receptors ( Lyons et al. 2004 ). Initial studies indicated that the expression of mPRs is highly tissue-specific, with mPRα being the predominant isoform in reproductive tissues

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Min Kyong Moon, In-Kyong Jeong, Tae Jung Oh, Hwa Young Ahn, Hwan Hee Kim, Young Joo Park, Hak Chul Jang, and Kyong Soo Park

, Alonso-Magdalena et al . 2006 ), decreased production or secretion of adiponectin from adipocytes, the establishment of insulin-sensitizing adipocytokine ( Hugo et al . 2008 , Kidani et al . 2010 ), enhanced adipocyte differentiation and lipid