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Anne-Marie Neumann, Cathleen Geißler, Violetta Pilorz, Iwona Olejniczak, Alfor G Lewis, Randy J Seeley, Orr Shomroni, Gabriela Salinas-Riester, Henriette Kirchner, and Henrik Oster

). Energy metabolism is tightly linked to the circadian clock system. The light-sensitive suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus acts as a pacemaker of circadian rhythms in mammals synchronizing physiological functions with 24-h rhythms of the

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J Fahrenkrug, B Georg, J Hannibal, and H L Jørgensen

Introduction There is growing evidence that endocrine body rhythms including the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis are regulated by the circadian timing system, which consists of the master pacemaker located in the hypothalamic

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Pei-Jian He, Masami Hirata, Nobuhiko Yamauchi, and Masa-aki Hattori

Introduction Circadian rhythm is generated by genetically determined biological clock, and is prominently entrained by cues from the 24-h light:darkness cycle ( Dunlap 1999 , Reppert & Weaver 2001 ). In mammals, the central clock is

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Marianna Minnetti, Valeria Hasenmajer, Riccardo Pofi, Mary Anna Venneri, Krystallenia I Alexandraki, and Andrea M Isidori

adrenal hormones play a pivotal role in mitigating or enhancing the effects of clock genes on their own targets. The exact role of glucocorticoids in this context has yet to be fully elucidated. However, it is generally accepted that their circadian rhythm

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Shanqi Fu, Miho Kuwahara, Yoko Uchida, Sei Kondo, Daichi Hayashi, Yuji Shimomura, Asami Takagaki, Takashi Nishida, Yusuke Maruyama, Mika Ikegame, Atsuhiko Hattori, Satoshi Kubota, and Takako Hattori

receptors and developmental control genes ( Reddi 1994 , Goldring et al. 2006 , Shao et al. 2006 , Liu et al. 2017 ). There is considerable evidence to suggest that cartilage and bone growth in vertebrates oscillate in a circadian rhythm, but the

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Sarika Paul and Timothy M Brown

function ( Takahashi 2015 ). In the case of the SCN, these clock controlled genes include membrane ion channels, thereby generating pronounced circadian rhythms in the excitability and spontaneous electrical activity of SCN neurons ( Belle & Allen 2018

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Dario R Lemos, Jodi L Downs, Martin N Raitiere, and Henryk F Urbanski

Introduction In mammals, many aspects of physiology and behavior are temporally regulated, showing circadian as well as circannual rhythms. Whereas, circadian rhythms reflect the daily organization of body functions, circannual rhythms represent an

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Cassandra C Yap, Michaela D Wharfe, Peter J Mark, Brendan J Waddell, and Jeremy T Smith

, the SCN exerts tight circadian control over many biological processes through endogenous rhythms generated by positive and negative feedback gene transcription and translation loops of clock genes, including Clock , Bmal1 , Per1-3 , Cry 1-2 , and

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Patricia Cristine Borck, Sarah Rickli, Jean Franciesco Vettorazzi, Thiago Martins Batista, Antonio Carlos Boschero, Elaine Vieira, and Everardo Magalhães Carneiro

obesity, T2D and cardiovascular diseases. Recent evidence indicates that exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) disrupts the circadian rhythms and leads to the development of metabolic disorders ( Boivin & Boudreau 2014 , Dibner & Schibler 2015

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Michaela D Wharfe, Peter J Mark, Caitlin S Wyrwoll, Jeremy T Smith, Cassandra Yap, Michael W Clarke, and Brendan J Waddell

, referred to as ‘peripheral clocks’. The circadian rhythm of circulating glucocorticoids (generated via the HPA axis) provides a key coordination link between the central SCN clock and these peripheral clocks ( Hastings et al . 2007 ), and as such plays a