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Alex Rafacho, Henrik Ortsäter, Angel Nadal, and Ivan Quesada

effects, including peripheral insulin resistance (IR) and glucose intolerance as well as overt hyperglycaemia and diabetes. These side effects are observed particularly in susceptible individuals such as pregnant women, obese subjects, IR individuals or

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Mohamed Lotfy, Jaipaul Singh, Hameed Rashed, Saeed Tariq, Erika Zilahi, and Ernest Adeghate

Introduction Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major metabolic disorder and a global health problem currently affecting more than 250 million people worldwide ( Zimmet & Alberti 2006 ). Type 1 and type 2 DM (T1DM and T2DM) can lead to a number of long

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Ziping Jiang, Junduo Wu, Fuzhe Ma, Jun Jiang, Linlin Xu, Lei Du, Wenlin Huang, Zhaohui Wang, Ye Jia, Laijin Lu, and Hao Wu

oxygenase 1 ( Ho1 ) ( Ruiz et al . 2013 ), the protein products of which function as antioxidants that scavenge upon excessive diabetes mellitus (DM)-generated free radicals. In the cytoplasm, NRF2 is sequestered by kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP

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Wenpeng Dong, Ye Jia, Xiuxia Liu, Huan Zhang, Tie Li, Wenlin Huang, Xudong Chen, Fuchun Wang, Weixia Sun, and Hao Wu

Introduction As one of the long-term complications of diabetes, diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the main cause of end-stage renal disease ( Dronavalli et al . 2008 ). Thus, end-stage renal disease cannot be effectively prevented or treated

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Qiaoli Cui, Yijing Liao, Yaojing Jiang, Xiaohang Huang, Weihong Tao, Quanquan Zhou, Anna Shao, Ying Zhao, Jia Li, Anran Ma, Zhihong Wang, Li Zhang, Zunyuan Yang, Yinan Liang, Minglin Wu, Zhenyan Yang, Wen Zeng, and Qinghua Wang

methods Animals Male rhesus monkeys with spontaneous type 2 diabetes were provided and housed in Sichuan Primed Shines Bio-tech Co., Ltd. (SPSB). Before the experiments, the animals were quarantined and received a physical examination, two

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Prabhakara R Nagareddy, Sunil K Noothi, Michelle C Flynn, and Andrew J Murphy

such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome to promote an exacerbated myelopoietic phenotype. The mechanisms of each of these risk factors in relation to myeloid-driven CAD are summarized in Fig. 1 (modified from Murphy & Tall 2016 ) and detailed below

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P Brandimarti, J M Costa-Júnior, S M Ferreira, A O Protzek, G J Santos, E M Carneiro, A C Boschero, and L F Rezende

Introduction Type 2 diabetes is a complex illness mainly characterized by hyperglycemia, usually accompanied by pancreatic islets malfunction, and reduced insulin sensitivity, as well as lower insulin clearance. Although hyperglycemia is one of the

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Kanta Kon, Hiroshi Tsuneki, Hisakatsu Ito, Yoshinori Takemura, Kiyofumi Sato, Mitsuaki Yamazaki, Yoko Ishii, Masakiyo Sasahara, Assaf Rudich, Takahiro Maeda, Tsutomu Wada, and Toshiyasu Sasaoka

Introduction The prevalence of lifestyle-related disorders, including insomnia, obesity and type 2 diabetes is increasing worldwide, mainly due to dramatic changes in living environments in modern society. Evidence indicates that environmental

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Paul Millar, Nupur Pathak, Vadivel Parthsarathy, Anthony J Bjourson, Maurice O’Kane, Varun Pathak, R Charlotte Moffett, Peter R Flatt, and Victor A Gault

Introduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder that arises due to a complex array of molecular defects manifesting in dysregulated insulin secretion, impaired insulin action or both. Since the pathophysiology of T2DM is

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Xiaoyi Ma, Fei Gao, Qi Chen, Xiuping Xuan, Ying Wang, Hongjun Deng, Fengying Yang, and Li Yuan

Introduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by progressive beta-cell dysfunction. In recent years, the incidence of prediabetes and T2DM has steadily increased ( Kehlenbrink et al . 2019 ). Moreover, the incidence of