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Monique C Saleh, Michael B Wheeler, and Catherine B Chan

), lower cellular ATP, impaired ATP-dependent potassium (K ATP ) channel closure, and reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS; Chan et al. 2001 , Lee et al. 2004 ). Polymorphisms in the ucp2 promoter that increase its transcription are

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Martha Lappas, Sofianos Andrikopoulos, and Michael Permezel

Introduction Placental glucose uptake and transport is paramount for foetal growth and development ( Hay 2006 , Jansson & Powell 2007 ). In the absence of significant foetal gluconeogenesis ( Kalhan & Parimi 2000 ), for appropriate growth and

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W S Zawalich, H Yamazaki, K C Zawalich, and G Cline

Introduction In response to sustained square-wave stimulation by high glucose concentrations, rat pancreatic islets studied using the perfused pancreas preparation or perifused islets exhibit a robust, biphasic insulin secretory

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Taira Wada, Yukiko Yamamoto, Yukiko Takasugi, Hirotake Ishii, Taketo Uchiyama, Kaori Saitoh, Masahiro Suzuki, Makoto Uchiyama, Hikari Yoshitane, Yoshitaka Fukada, and Shigeki Shimba

et al. 1999 ). Because adiponectin is a crucial factor in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation, and oxidative stress, reduced adiponectin levels play a causal role in the development of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome

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Stuart A Lanham, Dominique Blache, Richard O C Oreffo, Abigail L Fowden, and Alison J Forhead

.0 ± 0.5 10.0 ± 0.5 NS P < 0.05 NS Insulin (ng/mL) 0.30 ± 0.06 0.05 ± 0.01 b 0.34 ± 0.17 0.04 ± 0.01 b P < 0.005 NS NS Glucose (mmol/L) 0.71 ± 0.08 1.02 ± 0.09 0.73 ± 0.13 1.49 ± 0.32 b P

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Anthony J Weinhaus, Laurence E Stout, Nicholas V Bhagroo, T Clark Brelje, and Robert L Sorenson

Introduction To accommodate the increased demand for insulin during pregnancy, pancreatic islets of Langerhans undergo structural and functional changes leading to increased insulin release under normal glucose homeostasis ( Parsons

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Xiuli Men, Liang Peng, Haiyan Wang, Wenjian Zhang, Shiqing Xu, Qing Fang, Honglin Liu, Wenying Yang, and Jinning Lou

Introduction Insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction are main characteristics of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Chronic high glucose, free fatty acids, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress have been found to be toxic to pancreatic β-cells and

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Ashley Patton, Tyler Church, Caroline Wilson, Jean Thuma, Douglas J Goetz, Darlene E Berryman, Edward O List, Frank Schwartz, and Kelly D McCall

prevent and/or reverse HF diet-induced hepatic and adipose tissue inflammation as well as hepatic steatosis and glucose intolerance in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. Materials and methods Phenylmethimazole (C10) solutions

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Chaoyi Zhang, Qianli Zhang, Zhihong Huang, and Quan Jiang

tissues of mice ( Kumar et al. 2008 ) and fish ( Lian et al. 2016 ). The liver is an essential tissue for maintaining glucose and lipid homeostasis, and its metabolic processes are tightly regulated by neuronal and hormonal systems ( Rui 2014

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Irene Andrés-Blasco, Andrea Herrero-Cervera, Ángela Vinué, Sergio Martínez-Hervás, Laura Piqueras, María Jesús Sanz, Deborah Jane Burks, and Herminia González-Navarro

increasing at an alarming rate due to population aging and to sedentary lifestyle patterns ( Wild et al . 2004 ). Metabolic alterations that define MetS include insulin resistance (IR), abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertension and dyslipidemia