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Eun-Kyung Choi, Woon-Ki Kim, Ok-Joo Sul, Yun-Kyung Park, Eun-Sook Kim, Jae-Hee Suh, Rina Yu, and Hye-Seon Choi

Introduction Menopause increases the incidence of metabolic diseases. The loss of ovarian function is associated with increased visceral fat along with metabolic pathologies due to chronic inflammation ( Shoelson et al . 2007 ). The ovariectomy

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Lesley A Hill, Tamara S Bodnar, Joanne Weinberg, and Geoffrey L Hammond

centre loop (RCL) is cleaved by proteases, including neutrophil elastase ( Hammond et al. 1990 ), chymotrypsin ( Lewis & Elder 2014 ) or the bacterial proteinase, LasB ( Simard et al. 2014 ). During inflammation, CBG acts as an acute phase ‘negative

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Caterina Luana Pitasi, Junjun Liu, Blandine Gausserès, Gaëlle Pommier, Etienne Delangre, Mathieu Armanet, Pierre Cattan, Bruno Mégarbane, Anne-Sophie Hanak, Kamel Maouche, Danielle Bailbé, Bernard Portha, and Jamileh Movassat

Introduction Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is recognized as a state of chronic inflammation. In addition to systemic and adipose tissue inflammation ( Dalmas et al. 2011 ), local inflammation within the endocrine pancreas has been established and

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Matthias R Meyer, Natalie C Fredette, Matthias Barton, and Eric R Prossnitz

. 2005 ). GPER is highly expressed in the cardiovascular system ( Isensee et al . 2009 ) and has been implicated in the regulation of vascular tone and inflammation ( Haas et al . 2009 , Lindsey et al . 2009 , Meyer et al . 2010 , Chakrabarti

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Ya Pei, Honggui Li, Yuli Cai, Jing Zhou, Xianjun Luo, Linqiang Ma, Kelly McDaniel, Tianshu Zeng, Yanming Chen, Xiaoxian Qian, Yuqing Huo, Shannon Glaser, Fanyin Meng, Gianfranco Alpini, Lulu Chen, and Chaodong Wu

past decade, much evidence has demonstrated the persistence of low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue during obesity ( Weisberg et al. 2003 , Xu et al. 2003 , Lumeng et al. 2007 ) and validated adipose tissue inflammation as a critical factor

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M K Piya, P G McTernan, and S Kumar

Evolution and inflammation Chronic low-grade inflammation is thought to be key in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) that is associated with obesity-mediated diabetes

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Wing-Yee Lui, Yan Ho Cheng, Dolores D Mruk, Chin Ho Cheng, Meng Yun Mo, Will M Lee, and C Yan Cheng

) and basic fibroblast growth factor ( Dennis et al. 1989 ). This α 2 -MG–cytokine complex formation is believed to provide a mechanism to regulate the bioavailability of cytokines and to clear excessive cytokines during inflammation and wound repair

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Milos Mraz and Martin Haluzik

-grade inflammation characterized by increased infiltration of immune cells into AT and increased production and subsequent secretion of proinflammatory factors into circulation ( Neels & Olefsky 2006 ). This review has focused on the various subsets of immune cells

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Yu Wu, Tingting Wu, Jun Wu, Lei Zhao, Qing Li, Zac Varghese, John F Moorhead, Stephen H Powis, Yaxi Chen, and Xiong Z Ruan

impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes ( Xiang et al . 2010 a ). Obesity, insulin resistance, and T2DM are closely associated with chronic inflammation characterized by abnormal cytokine production, increased acute-phase reactants and other mediators, and

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Linda Vignozzi, Annamaria Morelli, Erica Sarchielli, Paolo Comeglio, Sandra Filippi, Ilaria Cellai, Elena Maneschi, Sergio Serni, Mauro Gacci, Marco Carini, Marie-Pierre Piccinni, Farid Saad, Luciano Adorini, Gabriella B Vannelli, and Mario Maggi

inflammation) components ( Nickel 1994 , Fibbi et al . 2010 , Moul & McVary 2010 , Donnell 2011 ). A growing body of evidence has documented a strong and independent association between BPH/LUTS and obesity/metabolic syndrome (MetS; Mongiu & McVary 2009