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Hong Lan, Galya Vassileva, Aaron Corona, Li Liu, Hana Baker, Andrei Golovko, Susan J Abbondanzo, Weiwen Hu, Shijun Yang, Yun Ning, Robert A Del Vecchio, Frederique Poulet, Maureen Laverty, Eric L Gustafson, Joseph A Hedrick, and Timothy J Kowalski

fall into two major categories: drugs that improve insulin sensitivity, and those that increase insulin secretion from β-cells. Agents that enhance insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetics (e

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Linda Ahlkvist, Bilal Omar, Anders Valeur, Keld Fosgerau, and Bo Ahrén

tolerance test (IVGTT) was performed where the mice were injected with glucose (0.35 g/kg, Sigma) in a tail vein with or without glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) (3 nmol/kg, Sigma). Blood samples were collected at different time points into heparinized tubes

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Shin-ya Ueda, Takahiro Yoshikawa, Yoshihiro Katsura, Tatsuya Usui, Hayato Nakao, and Shigeo Fujimoto

endocrine organs, including ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), pancreatic polypeptide (PP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK), and oxyntomodulin ( Huda et al . 2006 , Näslund & Hellstrom 2007 , Wren & Bloom 2007 ). While of these, ghrelin is

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Wenjuan Liu, Harry Kevin Lau, Dong Ok Son, Tianru Jin, Yehong Yang, Zhaoyun Zhang, Yiming Li, Gerald J Prud’homme, and Qinghua Wang

the β-cell mass and provide improved treatments for T1D and T2D subjects. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone released from gastrointestinal L cells in response to food ingestion, and has been currently used for the treatment of T2

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Mohamed Lotfy, Jaipaul Singh, Hameed Rashed, Saeed Tariq, Erika Zilahi, and Ernest Adeghate

endocrine and an exocrine system with much interaction between the two parts ( Shetzline & Liddle 2002 ). The GI tract secretes a number of hormones including glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1; Drucker 2003 b

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Eun-Young Lee, Xilin Zhang, Junki Miyamoto, Ikuo Kimura, Tomoaki Taknaka, Kenichi Furusawa, Takahito Jomori, Kosuke Fujimoto, Satoshi Uematsu, and Takashi Miki

Introduction Oral ingestion of carbohydrate triggers secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), the major incretins that inhibit the rise in blood glucose levels by potentiating insulin

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C Y Shan, J H Yang, Y Kong, X Y Wang, M Y Zheng, Y G Xu, Y Wang, H Z Ren, B C Chang, and L M Chen

-like peptide 1 (GLP1) and GLP2 may play key roles in these processes ( Tremaroli & Bäckhed 2012 ). For example, GLP2, which is secreted by intestine L cells, is a key regulator of intestinal permeability ( Cani et al . 2009 ). Therapeutic regimes that target

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Jia Fang Wang and David J Hill

endothelial cell CD31/PECAM-1 were obtained from Dako Corporation, Santa Barbara, CA, USA, and rabbit anti-human α amylase from Sigma Chemical Co. Rabbit anti-rat PDX-1 was provided by Dr C Wright, Vanderbilt University. Glucagon-like polypeptide 1 (GLP-1) and

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Tao Xie, Min Chen, and Lee S Weinstein

. 2003 ). In addition, type 2 diabetics also have increased glucagon (GCG) secretion from pancreatic α-cells and inappropriately increased serum levels of GCG ( Goke 2008 ). Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) and other incretin hormones promote glucose

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M-J Kim, J-H Kang, Y G Park, G R Ryu, S H Ko, I-K Jeong, K-H Koh, D-J Rhie, S H Yoon, S J Hahn, M-S Kim, and Y-H Jo

Introduction Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been of much interest due to its β-cell-proliferating effect and role as an incretin hormone in synergizing with glucose to enhance insulin release ( Ørskov 1992 , Egan et al. 2003