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Mari van de Vyver

. 2023 ). Figure 1 Factors contributing to chronic inflammation in type 2 diabetes. Continuous activation signals are derived from multiple sources including, dysfunctional adipose tissue, the aberrant metabolic activation of leukocytes, damage

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Sarah L Craig, Victor A Gault, Gerd Hamscher, and Nigel Irwin

Introduction Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are an orally available class of drugs, clinically approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) ( Scott 2017 ). The primary therapeutic benefit of DPP-4 inhibitors in T2DM

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Vanesa Jiménez-Amilburu, Susanne Jong-Raadsen, Jeroen Bakkers, Herman P Spaink, and Rubén Marín-Juez

glycemic control present one of the main risk factors for developing heart failure ( Haslam & James 2005 ). Specially, type 2 diabetes (T2D) is strongly associated with heart failure ( Bell 2003 a ). Patients with T2D present an increased incidence of heart

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Gary J Remington, Celine Teo, Virginia Wilson, Araba Chintoh, Melanie Guenette, Zohra Ahsan, Adria Giacca, and Margaret K Hahn

metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemias, weight gain and glucose dysmetabolism have been reported ( Goff et al . 2005 , Newcomer 2005 ). While weight gain associated with APs remains a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes (DM2) ( Pi-Sunyer 1993 ), there is

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Li Zhao, Chunfang Zhu, Meng Lu, Chi Chen, Xiaomin Nie, Buatikamu Abudukerimu, Kun Zhang, Zhiyuan Ning, Yi Chen, Jing Cheng, Fangzhen Xia, Ningjian Wang, Michael D Jensen, and Yingli Lu

Introduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex metabolic disorder that is often associated with obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, microvascular disease and other complications ( American Diabetes Association 2016 ). All these

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Youichi Sato, Takanobu Kamada, and Aiko Yamauchi

Introduction Diabetes is a major worldwide public health problem ( Zimmet et al . 2001 ) that causes complications, such as retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease ( Crofford 1995 , Cannon 2008 , Srinivasan

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Manuela Elsen, Silja Raschke, and Jürgen Eckel

-induced insulin resistance ( Boström et al . 2012 a ). These results suggested a potential protective role of irisin in the development of type 2 diabetes, one of the major obesity-associated metabolic diseases. In order to investigate the relevance of irisin in

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Liselotte Fransson, Stephanie Franzén, Victoria Rosengren, Petra Wolbert, Åke Sjöholm, and Henrik Ortsäter

-treated mice. Ectopic fat accumulation is a condition often referred to as having a substantial negative effect on insulin sensitivity, which also is a key factor of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome ( Hagberg et al . 2012 , Tchernof & Despres 2013

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Nele Friedrich

Introduction Diabetes mellitus, particularly type 2 diabetes (T2DM), represents one of the most significant global health problems because it is associated with a large economic burden on the health systems of many countries. The World Health

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Clyde J Wright, Sarah McKenna, Robyn De Dios, Brit H Boehmer, Leanna Nguyen, Sankar Ghosh, Jeryl Sandoval, and Paul J Rozance

Introduction Diabetes mellitus (DM), whether type 1 or type 2, results from an inability of the pancreatic β-cells to secrete sufficient amounts of insulin to appropriately regulate blood glucose concentrations appropriately. This inability is