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Sojin Lee and H Henry Dong

, kidney, muscle and adipose tissues, a broad tissue distribution that is characteristic of other FoxO isoforms in mammals ( Kim et al. 2011 ). Recent studies indicate that FoxO6 plays important roles in integrating insulin signaling to glucose and lipid

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Linda Ahlkvist, Bilal Omar, Anders Valeur, Keld Fosgerau, and Bo Ahrén

& Ahren 2000 , Henkel et al . 2005 , Menge et al . 2011 ). Hyperglucagonemia is associated with worsening of hyperglycemia by maintaining inappropriately high liver glucose production ( Unger & Eisentraut 1964 ). Whether hyperglucagonemia also

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Qiaoli Cui, Yijing Liao, Yaojing Jiang, Xiaohang Huang, Weihong Tao, Quanquan Zhou, Anna Shao, Ying Zhao, Jia Li, Anran Ma, Zhihong Wang, Li Zhang, Zunyuan Yang, Yinan Liang, Minglin Wu, Zhenyan Yang, Wen Zeng, and Qinghua Wang

Introduction Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone produced and secreted by intestinal L cells in response to nutrients ingestion. GLP-1 regulates glucose metabolism mainly by stimulating postprandial insulin secretion and

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Virginia L Pszczolkowski, Meghan K Connelly, Adam D Beard, Amara D Benn, Jimena Laporta, Laura L Hernandez, and Sebastian I Arriola Apelo

gluconeogenesis, lipolysis, and lipogenesis, among others ( Kim et al. 2010 , Sumara et al. 2012 , Laporta et al. 2013 , Cataldo Bascunan et al. 2019 ). Intravenous 5-HTP infusion into late-lactation dairy cows increased circulating glucose and free

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Jillian L Rourke, Shanmugam Muruganandan, Helen J Dranse, Nichole M McMullen, and Christopher J Sinal

of in vitro and in vivo studies support chemerin as a regulator of immune function, adipose tissue function, and glucose homeostasis ( Rourke et al . 2013 ). In the immune system, chemerin acts as a potent chemoattractant for macrophages

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Hyo-Eun Kim, Sung-E Choi, Soo-Jin Lee, Ji-Hyun Lee, Youn-Jung Lee, Sang Sun Kang, Jaesun Chun, and Yup Kang

Introduction Secretion of insulin from pancreatic β-cells is an essential prerequisite to maintaining an appropriate level of blood glucose. For appropriate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) to occur, all steps, from glucose sensing to

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Ananda L Rodrigues, Érica P G De Souza, Simone V Da Silva, Dayane S B Rodrigues, Aline B Nascimento, Christina Barja-Fidalgo, and Marta S De Freitas

perinatal period ( Faust et al . 1980 , Basset & Craig 1988 ). Rats from small litters (SL) can develop persistent hyperphagia, obesity, elevated triacylglycerols, increased systolic blood pressure, hyperleptinemia, hyperinsulinemia, and impaired glucose

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H Takahashi, Y Kurose, S Kobayashi, T Sugino, M Kojima, K Kangawa, Y Hasegawa, and Y Terashima

plasma ghrelin levels are increased by fasting ( Kim et al. 2003 ). In contrast, plasma ghrelin levels are decreased by oral or intravenous administration of glucose ( Shiiya et al. 2002 ). In rodents, ghrelin stimulates food intake, promoting

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J M Mellado-Gil and M Aguilar-Diosdado

understood, β-cell apoptosis is known to participate in this process ( O’Brien et al. 1997 , Kurrer et al. 1997 , Augstein et al. 1998 ). Interleukin (IL)-1β alone or in combination with other pro-inflammatory cytokines inhibits the glucose

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Asghar Ali, Callie M Swanepoel, Quinton A Winger, Paul J Rozance, and Russell V Anthony

. While correlations between CSH concentrations and fetal growth have been examined, the effect of CSH on glucose utilization in the fetal liver is not clear. Glucose is the principal source of energy for the fetus, and optimal glucose utilization is