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Li Juan He, Min Liang, Fan Fan Hou, Zhi Jian Guo, Di Xie, and Xun Zhang

. 2005 ). Although the involvement of inflammatory processes in the development and/or progression of diabetic nephropathy has been recognized, intervention for inflammation in the diabetic kidney is practically unknown. Picrorhiza is a perennial herb

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Gregory S Y Ong, Timothy J Cole, Gregory H Tesch, James Morgan, Jennifer K Dowling, Ashley Mansell, Peter J Fuller, and Morag J Young

, macrophages accumulate in the tissues and receive specific signals to either exacerbate or resolve inflammation. Factors controlling the inflammatory response determine the extent of tissue damage in many disease states, including in cardiovascular disease

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K Vagnerová, M Kverka, P Klusoňová, P Ergang, I Mikšík, H Tlaskalová-Hogenová, and J Pácha

-inflammatory cytokines. These cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 (IL-1), have been shown to link inflammation with glucocorticoid production by stimulating the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and elevating thereby the plasma

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Camilla Alexanderson, Elias Eriksson, Elisabet Stener-Victorin, Malin Lönn, and Agneta Holmäng

. Several adipokines are cytokines, suggesting a link between inflammation and dysfunctions in glucose and lipid metabolism associated with insulin resistance ( Grimble 2002 , de Luca & Olefsky 2008 ). Enlargement of adipocytes increases their expression

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Harman S Mattu and Harpal S Randeva

contractility to inflammation and damage to blood vessels. The resulting conditions include (but are not limited to) hypertension, atherosclerosis, and endothelial and myocardial dysfunction. Diabetes, obesity and exogenous factors (exercise, lifestyle and

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Laurie Rouger, G Raphaël Denis, Souphalone Luangsay, and Marc Parmentier

the control of metabolism, insulin responses, and inflammation ( Galic et al . 2010 ). Some adipokines also influence adipose tissue development and inflammatory cell recruitment. Leptin and adiponectin are the most studied members of the adipokine

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Rosalia C M Simmen, Dustin M Brown, Charles M Quick, Iad Alhallak, Tyler Rose, Shi J Liu, and Angela S Kelley

subject to delayed diagnosis, has no known effective treatment and is recurrent. T1DM and ENDO share similar pathophysiology since both are associated with chronic inflammation triggered by overactivation of the immune response ( Cabrera et al. 2016

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Irit Miller, Hadas Bar-Joseph, Luba Nemerovsky, Ido Ben-Ami, and Ruth Shalgi

-grade chronic inflammation and angiogenesis may also contribute to this syndrome ( Goodarzi et al. 2011 , Nandi et al. 2014 , Azziz et al. 2016 ), although the relationship between the three factors is not well understood. PCOS women have elevated levels

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Breno Picin Casagrande, Daniel Vitor de Souza, Daniel Araki Ribeiro, Alessandra Medeiros, Luciana Pellegrini Pisani, and Debora Estadella

Introduction The negative aspects of obesogenic diets (OD) on adipose tissue accumulation, hepatic fat accumulation (steatosis), and inflammation are well described ( Van Herck et al. 2017 , Bortolin et al. 2018 , Casagrande et al

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Craig L Doig, Jamila Bashir, Agnieszka E Zielinska, Mark S Cooper, Paul M Stewart, and Gareth G Lavery

C Tanaka T Noguchi M Tomita T Fujikura J Yamamoto Y 2010 Glucocorticoid reamplification within cells intensifies NF-κB and MAPK signaling and reinforces inflammation in activated preadipocytes . American Journal of Physiology