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Haijiang Wu, Xinna Deng, Yonghong Shi, Ye Su, Jinying Wei, and Huijun Duan

wide range of transcription factors involved in cellular energy metabolism. By regulating the activities of these transcription factors, PGC-1α acts as a molecular switch for multiple cellular processes, including mitochondrial biogenesis and

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O Gubbay, M T Rae, A S McNeilly, F X Donadeu, A J Zeleznik, and S G Hillier

leading to cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of transcription factors, such as cAMP-response element (CRE) binding protein (CREB) and activating transcription factor-1 (ATF1) ( Carlone & Richards 1997 , Conti 2002

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Asmaà Fritah, Gérard Redeuilh, and Michèle Sabbah

sequence called the oestrogen response element (ERE), which is usually located upstream of the promoter and displays enhancer properties. For regulation of gene transcription, ER has to interact with basal transcription factors and RNA polymerase II ( Jacq

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Tracy Xiao Cui, Roland Kwok, and Jessica Schwartz

) and an adjacent CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) site, and an activator protein-1 (AP-1) site; these elements can be bound by cognate transcription factors to regulate c- fos transcription in response to GH ( Meyer et al . 1993 , 1994

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Abdullah Cim, Greta J Sawyer, Xiaohong Zhang, Haibin Su, Louise Collins, Peter Jones, Michael Antoniou, Jean-Paul Reynes, Hans-Joachim Lipps, and John W Fabre

factor NeuroD1 avoided exocrine transdifferentiation ( Kojima et al . 2003 ). More recently, transdifferentiation to insulin-producing cells, without exocrine differentiation, has been achieved in mice with adenovirus delivery of multiple transcription

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T Taguchi, T Takao, Y Iwasaki, M Nishiyama, K Asaba, and K Hashimoto

-atherosclerotic, and anti-aging effects ( Aoki et al. 2003 ). Some of these effects are thought to be mediated by its antioxidant properties via inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ( Aragno et al. 2002 , Iwasaki et al. 2004 ), which is a transcription factor

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Won Bae Kim, Christopher J Lewis, Kelly D McCall, Ramiro Malgor, Aimee D Kohn, Randall T Moon, and Leonard D Kohn

2004 ). β-Catenin, a transcription cofactor that acts together with T cell factor/lymphoid enhancing factor (TCF/LEF) to induce target gene expression ( Cadigan & Nusse 1997 ), is a structural adaptor protein linking cadherins to the actin cytoskeleton

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Kyriaki S Alatzoglou, Daniel Kelberman, and Mehul T Dattani

primordium and the correct morphogenesis of the gland require the sequential temporal and spatial expression of a cascade of signalling molecules and transcription factors that will eventually dictate organ commitment, cell proliferation, patterning and

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Jin Yu, Yuhuan Liu, Danying Zhang, Dongxia Zhai, Linyi Song, Zailong Cai, and Chaoqin Yu

deletion analysis and transcription factor-binding site analysis, GATA-binding factor 1 (GATA1) was identified as a transcription factor most relevant to the HSD3B2 gene expression after cells were incubated with baicalin. To further confirm these results

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R Wang, N Yashpal, F Bacchus, and J Li

-Kit and the transcription factors PDX-1 and Ngn3 at the mRNA level. With the addition of the growth factor HGF, the monolayers had increased expression of insulin and glucagon mRNA, a 6.5- and 2-fold increase respectively in comparison with control