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Elin Kristensson, Monika Sundqvist, Rolf Håkanson, and Erik Lindström

activity of G cells (for review, see Håkanson et al. 1994 ). Gastrin and ghrelin have opposing secretory patterns; circulating ghrelin levels are high during fasting and decrease in response to food intake ( Tschöp et al. 2000

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Ruben Nogueiras, Sulay Tovar, Sharon E Mitchell, Perry Barrett, D Vernon Rayner, Carlos Dieguez, and Lynda M Williams

increases energy expenditure ( Elias et al. 1999 ). Leptin levels are lowered by fasting and food restriction ( Ahren et al. 1997 , Keim et al. 1998 ). Circulating levels of ghrelin, secreted by the stomach, rise rapidly in response to fasting and

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C Ortega-González, L Cardoza, B Coutiño, R Hidalgo, G Arteaga-Troncoso, and A Parra

ultrasound (The Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-sponsored PCOS consensus workshop group 2003). Additionally, all women had a body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m 2 , acanthosis nigricans, fasting hyperinsulinemia (>16 mIU/ml) and a fasting glucose/insulin (G/I) ratio <4

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Gustavo W Fernandes, Cintia B Ueta, Tatiane L Fonseca, Cecilia H A Gouveia, Carmen L Lancellotti, Patrícia C Brum, Marcelo A Christoffolete, Antonio C Bianco, and Miriam O Ribeiro

phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase ( Pepck ) mRNA levels and displayed marked hyperinsulinemia, which on a HFD also results in increased fasting blood glucose. However, these animals attempt to maintain their body temperature when exposed to cold and exhibit normal

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Kasper Faarkrog Høyer, Christoffer Laustsen, Steffen Ringgaard, Haiyun Qi, Christian Østergaard Mariager, Thomas Svava Nielsen, Ulrik Kræmer Sundekilde, Jonas T Treebak, Niels Jessen, and Hans Stødkilde-Jørgensen

Introduction The liver plays a crucial role in the regulation of whole-body glucose homeostasis and ensures a sufficient supply of substrates irrespective of food intake. During fasting, it is the primary source of endogenous glucose

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K J Oliveira, G S M Paula, R H Costa-e-Sousa, L L Souza, D C Moraes, F H Curty, and C C Pazos-Moura

). During fasting, as a means of conserving energy, the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis is suppressed and the activation of arcuate NPY neurons is a major component of the regulatory mechanism that causes a decline in proTRH mRNA in PVN, reducing

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Gabriel O de Souza, Fernanda M Chaves, Josiane N Silva, João A B Pedroso, Martin Metzger, Renata Frazão, and Jose Donato

junctions. Thus, electrical synapses allow information and different molecules to be propagated in a coordinated and fast way from neighboring cells ( Pereda 2014 ). The central regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis requires a fine and

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J Naufahu, F Alzaid, M Fiuza Brito, B Doslikova, T Valencia, A Cunliffe, and J F Murray

circulating MCH by conducting a cross-sectional study. Two intervention studies were also conducted to investigate whether circulating MCH concentrations were acutely responsive to food stimuli; furthermore, plasma MCH concentrations in both the fasted and fed

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Carla Brancia, Cristina Cocco, Filomena D'Amato, Barbara Noli, Fabrizio Sanna, Roberta Possenti, Antonio Argiolas, and Gian-Luca Ferri

physiological stimulus of feeding versus fasting. Materials and Methods Animals and tissue samples Sprague–Dawley rats (250–350 g, Harlan, Milan, Italy) were kept at 20 °C with free access to water throughout. In a first set of experiments, rats ( n =8, of

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Ling He, Shumei Meng, Emily L Germain-Lee, Sally Radovick, and Fredric E Wondisford

were fasted for 4 h followed by an i.p. injection of 250 mg/kg metformin, and blood glucose levels were measured at indicated time points ( He et al . 2012 ). Glucose production assay Mouse primary hepatocytes from WT and CBPS436A mutant mice were