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S Shaikh, F H Bloomfield, M K Bauer, H H Phua, R S Gilmour, and J E Harding

-responsive gut growth factor. Journal of Nutrition 131 709 –712. Butler AA & LeRoith D 2001 Minireview: tissue-specific versus generalized gene targeting of the IGF1 and IGF1r genes and their roles in insulin-like growth factor

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Sophie Fouchécourt, Murielle Godet, Odile Sabido, and Philippe Durand

-central nervous system and peripheral organs including the kidneys, lungs, blood, and testes ( Suter-Crazzolara & Unsicker 1994 , Trupp et al. 1995 , Suvanto et al. 1996 ). Although fertile, gene-targeted mice with one GDNF-null allele show depletion

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J L Crawford, B P Thomson, M F Beaumont, and D C Eckery

4812 –4820. Thomas K & Capecchi M 1987 Site-directed mutagenesis by gene targeting in mouse embryo-derived stem cells. Cell 51 503 –512. Thorner MO , Vance ML, Horvath E & Kovacs K 1992

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Natali Anne Henderson, Gerard M Cooke, and Bernard Robaire

stock that was used in all PCR experiments. For each analysis, six serial dilutions of the standard cDNA were run as a calibration curve parallel to the samples. The levels of mRNA for each gene (target and reference genes) were determined by comparing

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Judith L Turgeon and Dennis W Waring

B expression was examined in an inducible model of PR-A predominance in breast cancer lines. While most PR-target genes were not sensitive to the ratio change, progestin responsiveness was acquired in a subpopulation of gene targets involved in a

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Hong-Wei Wang, Michelle Muguira, Wei-Dong Liu, Tao Zhang, Chiachen Chen, Rebecca Aucoin, Mary B Breslin, and Michael S Lan

et al . 2005 ). In contrast to the positive regulation of insulin gene expression, negative regulation was not as frequently reported. Nkx2.2 is an islet-enriched transcription factor belonging to the NK2 family. Gene targeting experiments have shown

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Marta Labeur, Damian Refojo, Barbara Wölfel, Johanna Stalla, Vivian Vargas, Marily Theodoropoulou, Michael Buchfelder, Marcelo Paez-Pereda, Eduardo Arzt, and Günter K Stalla

recruitment of the complex together with other transcription factors to the Pomc promoter, which may elicit transcriptional repression of Pomc , remains to be elucidated. At present, the genes targeted by IFNG in AtT-20 cells remain unknown. Microarray or

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Yun-Ju Chen, Pei-Wen Hsiao, Ming-Ting Lee, J Ian Mason, Ferng-Chun Ke, and Jiuan-Jiuan Hwang

/Akt activation. Journal of Biological Chemistry 278 22374 –22378. Vanhaesebroeck B , Ali K, Bilancio A, Geering B & Foukas LC 2005 Signalling by PI3K isoforms: insights from gene-target mice. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 30

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Jacob C Garza, Chung Sub Kim, Jing Liu, Wei Zhang, and Xin-Yun Lu

important question that remains to be further addressed is what neuroanatomical and neurochemical substrates convey MC4R signaling in the control of energy homeostasis. Previous studies using the gene targeting strategy in MC4R-null mice have narrowed down

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Andrea Vasconsuelo, Lorena Milanesi, and Ricardo Boland

New York Academy of Sciences 278 93 – 123 . Biswas G Guha M Avadhani NG 2005 Mitochondria-to-nucleus stress signaling in mammalian cells: nature of nuclear gene targets, transcription regulation, and induced resistance to