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Mariana Rosolen Tavares, Renata Frazao, and Jose Donato Jr

and body growth. So, what would be the function of GH in adults when its basal secretion is decreased and the final stature has already been reached? Different situations of acute or chronic stress are known to induce a robust GH secretion. This is

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Rodrigo S Fortunato, Andrea C F Ferreira, Fabio Hecht, Corinne Dupuy, and Denise P Carvalho

Jaimungal S Sheikh-Ali M Mooradian AD 2012 Estrogen-dependent inhibition of dextrose-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and superoxide generation in endothelial cells . Free Radical Biology & Medicine 52 2161 – 2167 . ( doi:10.1016/j

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Joachim M Weitzel, Torsten Viergutz, Dirk Albrecht, Rupert Bruckmaier, Marion Schmicke, Armin Tuchscherer, Franziska Koch, and Björn Kuhla

the summer period induce metabolic heat stress, which has adverse effects on milk production, reproductive performance and animal welfare issues, among others. Counterregulatory mechanisms generally include an increased sweating rate, increased water

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David O'Regan, Christopher J Kenyon, Jonathan R Seckl, and Megan C Holmes

excess glucocorticoids via maternal stress, inhibition of placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2, the normal ‘barrier’ to maternal glucocorticoids, or its bypass with non-substrate synthetic glucocorticoids, such as dexamethasone (DEX

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Dóra Zelena, Ágnes Domokos, Subodh Kumar Jain, Ryan Jankord, and Ludmila Filaretova

Introduction Maintaining homeostasis in a constantly changing environment is a fundamental process of life. Hans Selye, the father of the stress concept, defined the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis as the major component required

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Femke L Groeneweg, Henk Karst, E Ron de Kloet, and Marian Joëls

Introduction Stress has many faces. On the one hand, it is a highly adaptive response to disturbances in homeostasis. Decades of research have identified a complex, tightly balanced system in the brain and periphery that translates the effects of

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Bo Chen, Yanrong Lu, Younan Chen, and Jingqiu Cheng

. Oxidative stress, hypoxia, and flow disturbances are important factors that are related to endothelial dysfunction ( Coleman et al . 2013 ). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are free radicals and reactive metabolites that contain oxygen molecules with unpaired

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Erin Faught, Lynsi Henrickson, and Mathilakath M Vijayan

key role in protein homeostasis during cellular stress ( Deane & Woo 2011 ). In fish, the intracellular induction of Hsps, in particular Hsp70, has been well characterized in response to a plethora of stimuli ( Iwama et al . 1999 , Basu et al . 2002

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Manuela S Bartlang, Inga D Neumann, David A Slattery, Nicole Uschold-Schmidt, Dominik Kraus, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster, and Stefan O Reber

Introduction Chronic stress in humans is known to be a risk factor for many affective disorders including anxiety and depression (for reviews, see Herbert (1997) , and Shalev (2009) ) as well as somatic disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease

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Muneaki Ishijima, Kunikazu Tsuji, Susan R Rittling, Teruhito Yamashita, Hisashi Kurosawa, David T Denhardt, Akira Nifuji, Yoichi Ezura, and Masaki Noda

arginine–glycine–aspartate sequence that is a major integrin-binding site and supports adhesion of bone cells to the mineralized matrix ( Giachelli & Steitz 2000 , Denhardt et al. 2001 b ). It has been reported that OPN is required for stress