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Local control of thyroid hormone action: role of type 2 deiodinase

Deiodinases: the balance of thyroid hormone

Graham R Williams and J H Duncan Bassett

DIO2 in negative feedback control of the HPT axis occurs predominantly in thyrotrophs of the anterior pituitary gland. PVN, para-ventricular nucleus; TRH, thyrotropin-releasing hormone; DIO2, type 2 deiodinase enzyme; TRβ2, thyroid hormone receptor β2

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S C P Dutra, E G Moura, A L Rodrigues, P C Lisboa, I Bonomo, F P Toste, and M C F Passos

expression of OB-Rb receptors both at the thyroid and hypothalamus. The stimulatory effect of leptin on the thyroid function is well known, through its effects at the hypothalamic level, increasing TRH, or its direct effects on the thyroid gland ( Legradi et

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Casey D Wright, Ryan J Orbus, Timothy R H Regnault, and Russell V Anthony

placentomes ( Lacroix et al . 1996 ). This group also reported in situ hybridization of oGH mRNA in the syncytium and trophoblast layers of the placenta at 40 dGA ( Lacroix et al . 1999 ). The oGH receptor (oGHR) mRNA was initially identified in the

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Marc Schneeberger, Ramon Gomis, and Marc Claret

functional inhibition of TH tonus and BAT thermogenesis ( Shi et al . 2013 ). Furthermore, NPY may also decrease pro-TRH transcription and proconvertase 2-mediated pro-TRH processing in the PVN through Y1/Y5 receptors ( Cyr et al . 2013 ). Taken together

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D C Ferguson, Z Caffall, and M Hoenig

caused by hypothalamic–pituitary–TH resistance ( Edupuganti et al. 1997 ). Supporting this hypothesis is the observation that T 3 receptors are decreased in obesity and the negative feedback of circulating THs on TSH is decreased ( Burman et al

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M T Rae, D Niven, A Ross, T Forster, R Lathe, H O D Critchley, P Ghazal, and S G Hillier

contraceptive usage. HOSE cells are believed to be steroid responsive on the basis that exposure to ovarian steroids in vitro affects HOSE cell proliferation ( Karlan et al. 1995 ) and that they express nuclear hormone receptors, including oestrogen receptor

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Pauline Campos, Jamie J Walker, and Patrice Mollard

trigger large and rapid calcium (Ca 2+ ) influx through voltage-gated channels. AP firing can therefore be assessed by measuring changes in concentrations of intracellular Ca 2+ ( Yasuda et al. 2004 ). Similarly, activation of neurotransmitter receptors

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Wenxia He, Xiangyan Dai, Xiaowen Chen, Jiangyan He, and Zhan Yin

, the transcriptional levels of other neuropeptide signaling molecules, including Ssts and Sst receptors, Ghrh and Ghrh receptors, Npy receptors, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (Trh) and Trh receptors, corticotrophin-releasing hormone (Crh) and Crh

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Katie Wynne, Sarah Stanley, Barbara McGowan, and Steve Bloom

contribute to the diffculty elucidating the receptor subtype that mediates NPY-induced feeding ( Raposinho et al. 2004 ). NPY is part of the pancreatic polypeptide (PP)-fold family of peptides, including peptide YY (PYY) and pancreatic

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G Tulipano, A V Vergoni, D Soldi, E E Muller, and D Cocchi

( Cocchi et al. 1999 ). Leptin also activates the hypothalamo–pituitary–thyroid axis through the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-secreting neurons located in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) ( Cusin et al. 2000 , Guo et al. 2004 , Huo et al