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Yoshinori Kanemaru, Norio Harada, Satoko Shimazu-Kuwahara, Shunsuke Yamane, Eri Ikeguchi, Yuki Murata, Sakura Kiyobayashi, Tomonobu Hatoko, and Nobuya Inagaki

, and adipose tissue ( Usdin et al . 1993 , Seino et al . 2013 , Joo et al . 2017 ), and the expression levels of GIPR mRNA did not differ among the three groups ( Fig. 4A ). Expression levels of adiponectin mRNA in adipose tissue were significantly

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Bethany P Cummings, Ahmed Bettaieb, James L Graham, Kimber Stanhope, Fawaz G Haj, and Peter J Havel

circulating adiponectin concentrations ( Fig. 3 B) with corresponding increases in AMPK phosphorylation (Thr 172 ) in subcutaneous WAT and brown adipose tissue (BAT) ( Fig. 3 C). Interestingly, animals treated with alogliptin alone exhibited a significant

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T Adachi, M Inoue, H Hara, E Maehata, and S Suzuki

Extracellular-superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is a secretory glycoprotein located in blood vessel walls at high levels and may be important in the antioxidant capability of vascular walls. The aim of this study was to assess plasma levels of EC-SOD and to evaluate the relationship of the EC-SOD level with insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients. We determined plasma EC-SOD in 122 patients and found for the first time that the EC-SOD level was strongly and positively related to adiponectin (r=0.503, P < 0.001), and significantly and inversely related to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (r=-0.209, P=0.022), body-mass index (BMI) (r=-0.187, P=0.040) and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-R) (r=-0.190, P=0.039). Stepwise-multiple regression analysis also showed a significant influence of adiponectin (F=33.27) on the EC-SOD level. Administration of pioglitazone to 19 diabetic patients significantly increased the plasma levels of EC-SOD (69.9+/-19.3 ng/ml to 97.4+/-25.9 ng/ml; P < 0.0001) and adiponectin, while it decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). The present observations suggest that factors related to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance play an important role in the regulation of the plasma EC-SOD concentration. It is possible that the increase in the EC-SOD level by pioglitazone administration in diabetic patients is due to a decline of TNF-alpha, which is known to suppress EC-SOD expression.

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Adam Gesing, Andrzej Bartke, and Michal M Masternak

plasma adiponectin, increased plasma resistin and cholesterol, elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL6) in adipocytes, hyperinsulinemia and increased insulin resistance ( Bartke 2003 , Wang et al . 2007 ), as well as

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Haiming Cao

stalled attempts to target leptin for anti-obesity and anti-diabetic therapies. Adiponectin Several research groups identified adiponectin almost simultaneously as an abundantly secreted adipokine ( Scherer et al . 1995 , Hu et al . 1996 , Maeda et al

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Mohamed Asrih and François R Jornayvaz

factor α (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL6), IL10, and adiponectin are considered to be the major inflammatory mediators found in NAFLD and insulin resistance and will thus be discussed here in more detail. Therefore, we also aim at updating and discussing

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Xiaofeng Wang and Catherine B Chan

protection against inflammation-impaired insulin secretion ( Clark 2002 ). Induction of adipokines Adiponectin is one of the adipokines most abundantly produced by adipose tissue and is a key regulator of fatty acid and glucose metabolism ( Karbowska & Kochan

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Liping Luo and Meilian Liu

, Rosen & Spiegelman 2014 , Parimisetty et al . 2016 ). Among these factors, adipokines-cytokines produced by adipose tissue including leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, apelin, vaspin, hepcidin, chemerin and omentin are implicated in obesity and obesity

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Simon J Dunmore

et al . 1994 )) and others of which were novel peptides or proteins such as adiponectin ( Scherer et al . 1995 ). The term ‘adipocytokine’ was subsequently applied to these factors; however, the contracted term ‘adipokine’ is perhaps more appropriate

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Li Feng, Ling Gao, Qingbo Guan, Xiaolei Hou, Qiang Wan, Xiangdong Wang, and Jiajun Zhao

analysis, such as glucose, insulin, adiponectin, and FFAs. Epididymal and perirenal fat pads were rapidly removed and weighed for calculating relative adipose tissue weight to body weight. Parts of epididymal fats were fixed in 4% w/v paraformaldehyde-0.2 M